Incomes and Hardship Among Non-Working Older Canadians Kevin Milligan ~ Vancouver School of Economics ~ University of British Columbia

Incomes and Hardship Among Non-Working Older Canadians

Canadian Journal on Aging, Vol. 34, No.1 (March, 2015), pp. 1-13
Google Scholar entry.


Canada and other countries are changing the age of public pension eligibility. A policy concern is the welfare of those exiting the labour force before the age of pension eligibility. This paper addresses early retirements by examining the incomes of those who are not working at near-retirement ages, and how these Canadians avoid low income. I find that around three quarters of those not working are able to avoid low income status. Most important for avoiding low income are other family income sources, good health, and employment-related pension income.


Published version: here.

Final pre-publication draft, January, 2014: PDF.

"Employer-provided pensions, incomes, and hardship in early transitions to retirement,"
CLSRN Working Paper No. 117, April, 2013: PDF.

"Incomes in the transition to retirement: Evidence from Canada,"
NBER/SSA/Retirement Research Consortium Working Paper No. NB 10-09, September, 2010: PDF.

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