Universal Childcare, Maternal Labor Supply, and Family Wellbeing Kevin Milligan ~ Vancouver School of Economics ~ University of British Columbia

Universal Childcare, Maternal Labor Supply, and Family Wellbeing

with Michael Baker and Jonathan Gruber.
Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 116, No. 4 (August 2008), pp. 709-745.
Google Scholar entry.

Winner, 2009 Doug Purvis Memorial Prize for most significant written contribution to Canadian economic policy.


We analyze the introduction of highly subsidized, universally accessible child care in Quebec, addressing the impact on child care utilization, maternal labor supply, and family well-being. We find strong evidence of a shift into new child care use, although some crowding out of existing arrangements is evident. Maternal labor supply increases significantly. Finally, the evidence suggests that children are worse off by measures ranging from aggression to motor and social skills to illness. We also uncover evidence that the new child care program led to more hostile, less consistent parenting, worse parental health, and lower?quality parental relationships.


Published version, August, 2008: JSTOR.

Updated draft, April, 2008: PDF.

NBER Working Paper No. 11832, December, 2005: Abstract/Paper.

Related documents

E-brief February, 2006. A short summary of the paper released through C.D. Howe Institute as e-brief 25. Google Scholar entry.
Presentation to explain our methodology and the context of our results to a non-economics audience. March, 2006.
A New York Times article from June 14th about this paper is available here. If that doesn't work, try the pdf version here.

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