1983 “Criteria for Distinguishing the Non-Aspectual Functions of ME ginnen.General Linguistics 23: 235-45.

1987 “A Linguistic Approach to Certain Old English Stylistic Devices.” Studia Neophilologica 59: 177-85.

1990 “The Stylistic Function of ME gan Reconsidered.” Papers from the 5th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics. Eds. S. Adamson, V.A. Law, N. Vincent, and S. Wright. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 31-53.

1990 “The Development of Discourse Markers in English.” Historical Linguistics and Philology. Ed. Jacek Fisiak. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 45-71.

1993 “Episode Boundary Markers in Old English Discourse.” Historical Linguistics 1989. Eds. Henk Aertsen and Robert J. Jeffers. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 73-89.

1995 “Pragmatic Markers in a Diachronic Perspective.” Proceedings of the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Eds. by Jocelyn Ahlers et al. Berkeley Linguistics Society. 377-388.

1998 “‘The flowers are lovely; only they have no scent’: The Evolution of a Pragmatic Marker” Anglistentag 1997. Eds. Raimund Borgmeier, Herbert Grabes, and Andreas H. Jucker. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. 9-33.

1999 “‘Whilom, as olde stories tellen us’: The Discourse Marker whilom in Middle English.” From Arabye to Engelond: Medieval Studies in Honour of Mahmoud Manzalaoui on his 75th Birthday. Eds. A.E. Crista Canitz and Gernot R. Wieland. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. 175-199.

2000 “The Importance of Discourse Types in Grammaticalization: The Case of anon.Textual Parameters in Older Languages. Eds. Susan Herring, Pieter van Reenen, and Lene Schøsler. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 139-62.

2001 “From Matrix Clause to Pragmatic Marker: The History of Look-Forms.” Journal of Historical Pragmatics 2.2: 177-199.

2001 “Historical Discourse Analysis.” The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Eds. Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton. Oxford and Malden, MA: Blackwell. 138-60.

2005 “Processes Underlying the Development of Pragmatic Markers: The Case of (I) say, Opening Windows on Texts and Discourses of the Past. Eds. Janne Skaffari, Matti Peikola, Ruth Carroll, Risto Hiltunen and Brita Wårvik. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 279-299.

2006 “Pathways in the Development of Pragmatic Markers in English”, The Handbook on the History of the English Language. Eds. Ans van Kemenade and Bettelou Los. Oxford: Blackwell. 307-334.

2007 “The Development of I mean: Implications for the Study of Historical Pragmatics”, Methods in Historical Pragmatics. Eds. Susan M. Fitzmaurice and Irma Taavitsainen. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 37-77.

2007 “What’s more: The Development of Pragmatic Markers in the Modern Period”.Of varying language and opposing creed’: New Insights into Late Modern English. Eds. Javier Pérez-Guerra, Dolores González Álvarez, Jorge L. Bueno-Alonso, and Esperanza Rama-Martínez. Bern: Peter Lang. 47-75.

2009 “The development of that said. Published on Language Log

2010 “From Performative to Concessive Disjunct: I/you admit and admittedly. Language Change and Variation from Old English to Late Modern English: A Festschrift for Minoji Akimoto. Eds. Merja Kytö, John Scahill, and Harumi Tanabe. Bern: Peter Lang. 279-302.

2010 “Discourse Markers”. Historical Pragmatics. Ed. Andreas H. Jucker and Irma Taavitsainen. Vol. 8 of Handbooks of Pragmatics. Historical Pragmatics. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 285-314.

2012 “Historical Pragmatics and Corpus Linguistics: Problems and Strategies”. English Corpus Linguistics: Crossing Paths Ed. Merja Kytö. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi. 101-131.

2014 “The Extremes of Insubordination: Exclamatory as if!. Journal of English Linguistics 42.2: 93-113. DOI 10.1177/0075424214521425

2014If you choose/like/prefer/want/wish: The Origin of Metalinguistic and Politeness Functions.” Late Modern English Syntax. Ed. Marianne Hundt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 270-290.

2015 “Historical Discourse Analysis.” The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. 2nd ed. Eds. Deborah Tannen, Heidi E. Hamilton, and Deborah Schiffrin. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. 222-243.

forthc. Chapter 10 “Historical Pragmatic Approaches”. English Historical Linguistics: Approaches and Perspectives. Ed. Laurel J. Brinton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


2002 “Grammaticalization versus Lexicalization Reconsidered: On the ‘late’ Use of Temporal Adverbs” English Historical Syntax and Morphology: Selected Papers from 11 ICEHL. Eds. Teresa Fanego, María José López-Couso, and Javier Pérez-Guerra. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 67-97 .

2004 “Subject Clitics in English: A Case of Degrammaticalization?” Corpus Approaches to Grammaticalization in English. Eds. Hans Lindquist and Christian Mair. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 227-56.

2007 “Rise of the Adverbial Conjunctions {any, each, every} time. Connectives in the History of English. Eds. Ursula Lenker and Anneli Meurman-Solin. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 77-96.

2007 “Lexicalization and Grammaticalization all over again” (co-authored with Elizabeth Closs Traugott), Historical Linguistics 2005. Eds. Joseph C. Salmons and Shannon Dubenion-Smith. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 3-19.

2012 “Changes in English in Theoretical Perspective: Lexicalization”, English Historical Linguistics: An International Handbook. Eds. Alexander Bergs and Laurel J. Brinton, 1577-1598. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter Mouton.

2012 “‘The ghost of old morphology’: (De)grammaticalization or Lexicalization?”. Grammaticalization and Language Change. New Reflections. Eds. Kristin Davidse, Tine Breben, Liselotte Brems, and Tanja Mortelmans. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 135-166.


1996 “Attitudes toward Increasing Segmentalization in English: Complex and Phrasal Verbs in English.” Journal of English Linguistics 24: 186-205.

1999 “Introduction” (co-authored with Minoji Akimoto). 1-20. and “The Origin of the Composite Predicate in Old English” (co-written with Minoji Akimoto). 21-58. In Collocational and Idiomatic Aspects of Composite Predicates in the History of English Co-edited Minoji Akimoto). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

2008 “‘Where grammar and lexis meet’: Composite predicates in English Theoretical and Empirical Issues in Grammaticalization. Eds. Elena Seoane and María José López-Couso, in collaboration with Teresa Fanego. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 33-53.

2011 “The Grammaticalization of Complex Predicates”. The Oxford Handbook of Grammaticalization. Eds. Heiko Narrog and Bernd Heine. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 559-569.


2001 “Canadian English” (co-authored with Margery Fee). English in North America. Vol. 6 of the Cambridge History of the English Language. Ed. John Algeo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 422-40.

2006– Bank of Canadian English (online database). Eds. Stefan Dollinger, Laurel J. Brinton, and Margery Fee.

2008 “Canadian English Lexis: Historical and Variationist Perspectives” (second author, with Stefan Dollinger). Special issue of AnglistikFocus on Canada”, ed. Matthias L.G. Meyer. 19:43-64.

2011 A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles Online. Stefan Dollinger (Editor-in-chief), Laurel J. Brinton, and Margery Fee (eds.). Based on Avis et al. (1967).

2012 “Balanced Corpora and Quotation Databases: Taking Shortcuts or Expanding Methodological Scope?” (first author, cowritten with Stefan Dollinger and Margery Fee)Outposts of Historical Corpus Linguistics: From the Helsinki Corpus to a Proliferation of Resources (Varieng: Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English.) Eds. Jukka Tyrkkö, Matti Kilpiö, Terttu Nevalainen, and Matti Rissanen. Vol. 10. Online at:

2012 “Revising the Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles: A Progress Report, 2006–(April) 2012” (second author, coauthored with Stefan Dollinger and Margery Fee). Dictionaries (Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America) 33: 164-178.

2015 “Studying Real-time Change in the Adverbial Subjunctive: The Value of the Bank of Canadian English”. Transatlantic Perspectives on Late Modern English. Ed. Marina Dossena. (Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics.) Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 14-36.

2016 “Using Historical Corpora and Historical Text Databases”, The Oxford Handbook of Lexicography. Ed. Philip Durkin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 203-220.

2017 “Building and Evaluating Web Corpora Representing National Varieties of English”, Language Resources and Evaluation (second author, coauthored with Paul Cook). Published online 6 Jan. 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s10579-016-9378-z


1980 “The Grammatical Status of Aspectual Catenatives in English.” Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Eds. Bruce R. Caron et al. Berkeley Linguistics Society. 268-77.

1985 “Verb Particles in English: Aspect or Aktionsart?” Studia Linguistica 39: 157-68.

1985 “From Verb to Aspectualizer: The Semantics of Grammaticalization.” Germanic Linguistics: Papers from a Symposium at the University of Chicago, April 24, 1985. Ed. Jan Terje Faarlund. Indiana University Linguistics Club, 29-45.

1985 “Iconicity and Semantic Change: Old English Verbal Prefixes.” Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik 23: 55-70.

1987 “The Aspectual Nature of States and Habits.” Folia Linguistica 21: 195-214.

1991 “The Mass/Count Distinction and Aktionsart: The Grammar of Iteratives and Habituals.” Belgian Journal of Linguistics 6: 47-69. (Special Volume on Perspectives on Aspect and Aktionsart. Eds. Carl Vetters and Willy Vandeweghe.)

1994 “The Differentiation of Statives and Perfects in Early Modern English: the Development of the Conclusive Perfect.” Towards a Standard English (1600-1800). Eds. Dieter Stein and Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 135-70.

1995 “The Aktionsart of Deverbal Nouns in English.” Temporal Reference, Aspect and Actionality. Vol. 1: Semantic and Syntactic Perspectives. Eds. Pier Marco Bertinetto, Valentina Bianchi, James Higginbotham, Mario Squartini. Torino: Rosenburg & Sellier. 27-42.

1998 “Aspectuality and Countability: A Cross-categorial Analogy.” English Language and Linguistics 2: 37-63.


1980 “‘Represented Perception’: A Study in Narrative Style.” Poetics 9: 363-81.

1984 “Chaucer’s ‘Tale of Melibee’: A Reassessment.” English Studies in Canada 10: 251-64.

1985 “The Iconic Role of Aspect in Shakespeare’s Sonnet 129.” Poetics Today 6: 447-59.

1987 “Iconic Word Order Patterns in Chaucerian Prose.” Semiotics 1986. Eds. Jonathan Evans and John Deely. Lanham: University Press of America. 3-14.

1988 “The Iconicity of Rhetorical Figures: the ‘Schemes’ as Devices for Textual Cohesion.” Language and Style 21: 162-90.

1992 “The Historical Present in Charlotte Brontë’s Novels: Some Discourse Functions.” Style 26: 221-44.

1995 “Non-anaphoric Reflexives in Free Indirect Style: Expressing the Subjectivity of the Non-speaker.” Subjectivity and Subjectivisation: Linguistic Perspectives. Eds. Dieter Stein and Susan Wright. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 173-94.


1987 “Diagrammatic Iconicity in English Syntax.” Recherches Sémiotiques/Semiotic Inquiry 7: 55-72, 108, 112.

1988 “Grammar, Usage, or Style? Rule Violations in Student Writing.” Technostyle 7: 37-46.

1989 “Metaphor, Metonymy, and Iconicity: Some Principles of Semantic Change.” Recherches Sémiotiques/Semiotic Inquiry 9: 137-49.

1995 “Functional Renewal” (co-authored with Dieter Stein). Historical Linguistics 1993: Selected Papers from the 11th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Los Angeles, 16-20 August 1993. Ed. Henning Andersen. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 33-47.

2015 Interjection-based Delocutive Verbs in the History of English”. Developments in English: Expanding Electronic Evidence. Eds. Irma Taavitsainen, Merja Kytö, Claudia Claridge, and Jeremy Smith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 141-161.

2017 Chapter 30: “Non-syntactic Sources and Triggers of Syntactic Change” (first author, coauthored with Elizabeth Closs Traugott). The Cambridge Handbook of Historical Syntax. Eds. Adam Ledgeway and Ian Roberts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 556–77.