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University of North Florida/Paul Halsall
The Crusades (with undergraduate and graduate sections)

title image: the crusades bibliography


The Crusades: Bibliography

Email: phalsall@unf.edu
Class Website: www.unf.edu/classes/crusades/

Last Update: October 12, 2003

This bibliography of literature on the Crusades in English is not meant to be exhaustive, but it is meant to point to the main sources (where English translations are available) and secondary works on the major areas of Crusade historiography; to be up to date; and to be a tool for further study.

The selections below derive from various sources -- previous courses I have taken, Crusade reference works, the MELVYL system at the University of California, and online book sellers. Although this bibliography is arranged differently, has added many more recent editions, and expanded a lot of the publication data, special note must be made of:

Contents


    CRUSADE OVERVIEWS

    Bibliography

    *Atiya, Aziz Suryal. The Crusade: Historiography and Bibliography. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1976, c1962.

    Berkhout, Carl T. and Jeffrey B. Russell. Medieval heresies: a bibliography, 1960-1979. Subsidia mediaevalia, 11. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1981.

    Mamluk Bibliography Subject Guide
    http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/mamluk/toc.html

    Mayer, Hans E. Bibliographie zur Geschichte der Kreuzzüge. 2d ed. Hanover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1965. (1st ed. 1960)

    Mayer, Hans E. "Lituraturbericht über die Geschichte der Kreuzzüge." Historisches Zeitschrift 3 (1969)

    $McLellan, J. and H.W. Hazard. "Select Bibliography of the Crusades," In A History of the Crusades (ed. in chief Kenneth M. Setton), Vol 6. Edited by H.W. Hazard and N.P. Zancour. 511-664. Madison WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989. Online at http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/HistCrusades

    Modern Bodley Bibliographies: The Crusades [with latest books listed in order of date of publication]
    http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/readerserv/history/crusades.htm

    Reference Works

    *Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Edited by Joseph R. Strayer. New York: Scribner, c1982-
    By far the best major medieval reference work in English, with useful starter bibliographies. It does not compare, however, to the major French language references works.

    $Encyclopedia of Islam, 2d ed. Edited by Bernard Lewis. Leiden: Brill, 1978- . ISBN: 9004057455
    Standard reference work on Islamic history.

    $Encylopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica; New York: Macmillan c1971-72; reprint, Coronet Books, 1994. ISBN: 0685362531

    *New Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967-
    [New edition in preparation.]

    *Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Edited by Alexander P. Kazhdan, Alice-Mary Talbot et al. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

    Source Collections

    *Brundage, James A. The Crusades, A Documentary Survey. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1962. [All the texts from this collection are now online at the Internet Medieval Sourcebook: Crusades.]

    *Hallam, Elizabeth, ed. Chronicles of the Crusades: Eye-witness Accounts of the Wars between Christianity and Islam. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1989. 

    Riley-Smith, Louise and Jonathan Riley-Smith. Crusades: Idea and Reality 1095-1274. Documents of Medieval History, 4. London: Edward Arnold, 1981.

    Internet Medieval Sourcebook: Crusades
    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1k.html

    Les Croisades: Sources, images et histoire
    http://www.callisto.si.usherb.ca/~croisade/Croisades.htm
    Excellent source of primary texts, modern narratives, and images -- all in French.

    Online Encyclopedias

    Encyclopedia Britannica: Crusade [no longer open access]
    -The Encyclopedia Britannica remains by the far the most trustworthy online encyclopedia.

    Encarta: Crusades
    -Only the concise version of Microsoft's own encyclopedia is online. It tries rather too hard to enhance Microsoft's revenue stream.

    Catholic Encylopedia (1913): Crusades [by Louis Brehier].   The CE is now outdated, but retains some value. In addition to the main article, there are articles on almost every facet of Crusade life. Readers need to be aware of attitudes adopted in some articles -- often a somehat old-fashioned Catholic apologetic stance is all too apparent.

    Secondary Literature

    *Armstrong, Karen. Holy War. London: Macmillan, 1988; New York: Doubleday, 1991.
    -An impassioned discussion of the impact of the crusades on the modern Middle East. Not always well informed as to facts.

    Barraclough, Geoffrey. The Medieva Papacy. New York: 1968>
    Good overview of the papacy, one of the crucial Crusade institutions.

    Balard, Michel, Kedar, Benjamin Z., and Riley-Smith, Jonathan (eds.). Dei gesta per Francos: Etudes sur les croisades deditees a Jean Richard, Brookfield VT: Ashgate, 2001.
        John France, "The fall of Antioch during the First Crusade";
        John H. Pryor, "'Water, water everywhere, Nor any drop to drink': Water supplies for the fleets of the First Crusade";
        Malcolm Barber, "The Albigensian Crusades: wars like any other?";
        Norman Housley, "Explaining defeat: Andrew of Regensburg and the Hussite Crusades";
        Ronnie Ellenblum, "Frankish and Muslim siege warfare and the construction of Frankish concentric castles".

    *Bartlett, Robert, and Angus MacKay, eds, Medieval Frontier Societies Oxford: Clarendon, 1990 ISBN: 0198228813

    *Bartlett, Wayne. God Wills It!: An Illustrated History of the Crusades. Stroud : Sutton, 1999.
    A gross popularization. Stick to Madden or Billings for up to date summary accounts.

    *Billings, Malcolm. The Crusades: Five Centuries of Holy Wars, New York: Sterling Publications, 1996; ISBN: 080699410X
    [Formerly, The Cross and the Crescent, London: BBC, 1987]
    This comes highly recommended for the general reader, but stress the "general." This is not college level, nor is it meant to be.

    Brundage, James A. ed. The Crusades, Motives and Achievements. Boston: Heath, 1964.

    *Byrd, Jessalynn. "The Crusades: Eschatological Lemmings, Younger sons, Papal Hegemony and Colonialism." http://www.the-orb.net/non_spec/missteps/ch2.html 
    -Concise and informative overview of main theories on the origins and nature of the crusades, with a careful bibliography.

    *Constable, Giles. “The Historiography of the Crusades.” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 1-22. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    *Cole, Penny J. "Christians, Muslims, and the "Liberation" of the Holy Land." The Catholic Historical Review 84 (1998): 1-10 [Online via WilsonSelect]

    *Finucane, Ronald C. Soldiers of the Faith : Crusaders and Moslems at War. 1st U.S. ed. New York : St. Martin's Press, c1983.

    *France, William and William G. Zajac, eds., The Crusades and Their Sources: Essays Presented to Bernard Hamilton. London: Ashgate, 1999 ISBN: 0860786242
    Contents: Raymond IV of St Gilles, Achard of Arles and the conquest of Lebanon, Jonathan Riley-Smith; Frontier warfare in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: the campaign of Jacob's Ford, 1178-79, Malcolm Barber; Albert of Aachen and the Chansons de Geste, Susan B. Edgington; The Anonymous Gesta Francorum and the Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem of Raymond of Aguilers and the Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere of Peter Tudebode: an analysis of the textual relationship between primary sources for the First Crusade, John France; Usamah ibn Munqidh: an Arab-Syrian gentleman at the time of the Crusades reconsidered, Robert Irwin; Les colophons de manuscrits arméniens comme sources pour l'histoire des Croisades, Gerard Dédéyan; The Tractatus de locis et statu sancte terre ierosolimitane, Benjamin Z. Kedar; The Hospitallers' early written records, Anthony Luttrell; Ehe und Besitz im Jerusalem der Kreuzfahrer, Hans Eberhard Mayer; The Livre des Assises by John of Jaffa: the development and transmission of the text, Peter W. Edbury; Les évêques de Chypre et la Chambre apostolique: un arrêt de compte de 1369, Jean Richard; Picturing the crusades: the uses of visual propaganda, c.1095-1250, Colin Morris; "Mighty against the enemies of Christ:" the relic of the True Cross and the armies of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Alan V. Murray; The south transept façade of the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem: an aspect of "Rebuilding Zion," Jaroslav Folda; A necessary evil? Erasmus, the Crusade, and war against the Turks, Norman Housley; Index.

    *Goss, Vladimir P. and Christine Verzar Bornstein, eds. The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange between East and West during the Period of the Crusades. Kalamazoo, Mich.: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1986. ISBN: 0918720583

    *Hooper, Nicholas, and Matthew Bennett. Cambridge Illustrated Atlas: Warfare: The Middle Ages 768-1487. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

    *Jones, Terry and Alan Ereira.Crusades. New York, NY : Facts on File, c1995.
    Avoid -- produced to go along with the documentary film series.

    *Kedar, Benjamin K. and Jonathan Riley-Smith, eds. Montjoie : Studies in Crusade History in Honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer, Variorum, 1997 ISBN: 0860786463
    Contents: Karl der Gro'e und die Endkaiser-Weissagung: Der Sieger über den Islam kommt aus dem Westen, Hannes Möhring; Pope Gregory VII and the bearing of arms, H.E.J. Cowdrey; The earliest Hospitallers, Anthony Luttrell; King Fulk of Jerusalem and "the Sultan of Babylon," Jonathan Riley-Smith; The crusading project of 1150, Giles Constable; Die Herren von Sidon und die Thronfolgekrise des Jahres 1163 im Königreich Jerusalem, Rudolf Hiestand; The castle and lordship of Mirabel, Denys Pringle; A western survey of Saladin's forces at the Siege of Acre, Benjamin Z. Kedar; Les révoltes chypriotes de 1191-1192 et les inféodations de Guy de Lusignan, Jean Richard; Bemerkungen zur Forma iustitiae inter Venetos et Francigenas vom März 1207, Gerhard Rösch; The Lyon Eracles and the old French continuations of William of Tyre, Peter W. Edbury; The Venetian privileges in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem: 12th- and 13th-century interpretations and implementation, David Jacoby; Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS lat. 5334 and the origins of the Hospitaller Master, Jaroslav Folda; "Describe the currency of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem", D.M. Metcalf; The problem of Byzantium and the Mediterranean World, c.1050-c.1400, John H. Pryor; Vom Kriegsgeschrei zur Tanzmusik. Anmerkungen zu den Italienzügen des späteren Mittelalters, Marie-Luise Favreau-Lilie; Ferrante I of Naples, Pope Pius II and the Congress of Mantua (1459), David Abulafia; Immortalizing the crusades: laws and institutions, James A. Brundage; Index.

    Kernaghan, Pamela and Tony McAleavy (Contributor), The Crusades: Cultures in Conflict (Cambridge History Programme). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 0521446171

    Kreis, Steve. "The Holy Crusades." at Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History
    http://www.historyguide.org/
    ancient/lecture25b.html

    A ten page overview of the crusades that would be useful in any survey course.

    *La Monte, J. L. "Some Problems in Crusading Historiography. " Speculum 15:1 (1940):  57-75.[Online via JSTOR}

    *Lloyd, Simon. "The Crusading Movement, 1096-1274." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 34-65. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    $Murray, Alan, ed. From Clermont to Jerusalem: The Crusaders and Crusade Society (1095-1453). International Medieval Research, 3 (Selected Proceedings of the International Medieval Congress, Leeds). Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1998

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan. "The Minds of Crusaders to the East, 1095-1300." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 66-90. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    *Madden Thomas. A Concise History of the Crusades. Totowa, NJ : Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.
    A short introduction, but with the wide range of Riley-Smith's textbook.

    *Mayer, Hans Eberhard, The Crusades, Oxford, 1965, 1972. Translated by John Gillingham. 2nd edition, Clarendon Press, 1997 ISBN: 019873097
    -Leading textbook by a historian who believes only expeditions to the Eastern Mediterranean were "real" crusades.

    *Muldoon, James. Varieties of Religious Conversion in the Middle Ages. Gainesville : University Press of Florida, 1997.
    Contents: Introduction: the conversion of Europe / James Muldoon -- Augustine : conversion by the book / Frederick H. Russell -- Monastic conversion : the case of Margaret Ebner / Leonard P. Hindsley O.P. -- "For force is not of God"? compulsion and conversion from Yahweh to Charlemagne / Lawrence G. Duggan -- The conversion of the physical world : the creation of a Christian landscape / John M. Howe -- Gender and conversion in the Merovingian era / Cordula Nolte -- God and man in medieval Scandinavia : writing, and gendering, the conversion / Ruth Mazo Karras -- Marriage and conversion in late medieval romance / Jennifer R. Goodman -- Bargaining for baptism : Lithuanian negotiations for conversion, 1250-1358 / Rasa Mazeika -- Conversion vs. baptism? European missionaries in Asia in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries / James D. Ryan -- From Jew to Christian? conversion and immutability in medieval Europe / Jonathan M. Elukin -- Multidirectional conversion in the Frankish Levant / Benjamin Z. Kedar.

    #Morris, Colin. "Propaganda for War: The Dissemination of the Crusading Ideal in the Twelfth Century" Studies in Church History 20 (1983), 79-101.

    *Murphy, Thomas Patrick, ed. The Holy War. Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Studies (5th: 1974: Ohio State University). Columbus: Ohio State University Press, c1976.

    *Partner, Peter. God of Battles: Holy Wars of Christianity and Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

    *Phillips, Jonathan, Defenders of the Holy Land: Relations Between the Latin East and the West, 1119-1187, Oxford: Clarendon, 1996 ISBN: 0198205406

    *Richard, Jean, The Crusades, C. 1071-C. 1291, translated by Jean Birrell, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999 ISBN: 0521625661
    -May become a major textbook alternative to Mayer an Riley-Smith.

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The Crusades: A Short History, New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1987. ISBN: 0300047002
    -Leading textbook by perhaps the dominant voice in modern Crusade historiography. He is a historian who believes that an account of the crusades needs to cover the expeditions within western Europe as well as the eastern campaigns.

    $Riley-Smith, Jonathan. "History, the Crusades and the Latin East, 1095-1204: A Personal View." In Crusaders and Muslims, ed. Maya Shatzmiller. Leiden: Brill, 1993.

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan, What Were the Crusades?, 2nd ed., London et al., 1992.
    A very useful discussion of the nature of crusading. Riley strongly states the "papal" definition of the Crusades as military expeditions called for by the pope.

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan, ed. The Atlas of the Crusades, New York & Oxford, Facts on File, Inc., 1990 ISBN: 0816021864
    -A well illustrated atlas which takes the crusades up to the capture of Malta.

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan, ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN: 0198204353
    -Collective work directed at the non-specialist in which many of the leading modern scholars on the crusades contribute synthetic articles on their specialty.

    $Riley-Smith, Jonathan. A History of the Crusades, Los Angeles: Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 2000 ISBN: 0192853643

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan. "Rethinking the Crusades." First Things March, 2000: 20-23. [With later Correspondence]

    *Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, 3 vols., Cambridge,1951-4.
    -Although dated in some of its conclusions -- and its evident anti-Latin bias -- this trilogy will remain in print simply because it is so well written. Above all others, Runciman is the narrator one reads for pleasure.

    *Saunders, J. J. Aspects of the Crusades. 2d ed. Christchurch: Whitcombe & Tombs 1968.

    Setton, Kenneth Meyer, ed.-in-chief. A History of the Crusades, 6 vols, Madison, Wis., 1969-89.
    Online at http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/HistCrusades
    *v. 1. The First Hundred Years, edited by M. W. Baldwin.
    *v. 2. The Later Crusades, 1189-1311, edited by R. L. Wolff and H. W. Hazard.
    *v. 3. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, edited by H. W. Hazard.
    *v. 4. The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States, edited by H. W. Hazard.
    *v. 5. The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East, edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard.
    $v. 6. The Impact of the Crusades on Europe.

    *Siberry, Elizabeth. Criticism of Crusading, 1095-1274, Oxford: 1985.
    -Has replaced Throop as the major discussion of this topic.

    *Throop, Palmer A. (Palmer Allan). "Criticism of Papal Crusade Policy in Old French and Provencal." Speculum 13:4. (1938): 379-412. [Online via JSTOR]

    Throop, Palmer A. (Palmer Allan). Criticism of the Crusade: A Study of Public Opinion and Crusade Propaganda. Amsterdam, N. v. Swets & Zeitlinger, 1940, reprint, Philadelphia: Porcupine Press, 1975.

    *Urban. William. "Rethinking the Crusades." AHA Perspectives October 1998

    #Wolf, Kenneth B. "Crusade and Narrative: Bohemond and the Gesta Francorum." Journal of Medieval History 17 (1991): 207-16.

    ORIGINS OF THE CRUSADES

    Sources

    Secondary Literature

    *Bartlett, Robert. The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950-1350. Princeton: Princeton University Press, repr. 1994 ISBN: 0691037809

    *Bisson, Thomas. N. “The Organized Peace in Southern France and Catalonia, ca. 1140-ca.1233.“ The American Historical Review 82: 2 (1977): 290-311. [Online via JSTOR]

    #Blake, E.O. "The Formation of the Crusade Idea." Journal of Ecclesiastical History 21 (1970): 11-31.

    *Bliese, John R.E. "St. Cuthbert and War." Journal of Medieval History  24:3 (1998): 215-41.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Browner, Jessica A. "Viking" Pilgrimage to the Holy Land fram! fram! cristmenn, crossmenn, konungsmenn! (Oláfs saga helga, ch. 224.)" Essays in History 34 (1992) http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/journals/EH/EH34/browne34.html

    *Bull, Marcus. "The Pilgrimage Origins of the First Crusade." History Today 47:5 (May 1997): 10-15. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    *Bull, Marcus. "Origins." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 13-33. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    *Burr, George Lincoln. “The Year 1000 and the Antecedents of the Crusades.” The American Historical Review  6:3 (1901): 429-39. [Online via JSTOR]

    #Charanis, Peter. "Byzantium, the West and the Origin of the First Crusade." Byzantion 19 (1949), 17-36.

    *Charanis, Peter. "The Byzantine Empire in the Eleventh Century." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 177-219. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Cohn, Norman. The Pursuit of the Millennium; Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages. Rev. and expanded ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
    An important support of the "lemming" theory of Crusading.

    #Cowdrey, H. E. J. "The Peace and Truce of God in the Eleventh Century." Past and Present 46 (1970), 42-67.

    *Cowdrey, H.E.J. The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1970.

    *Cowdrey, H. E. J. "The Genesis of the Crusades: The Springs of Western Ideas of Holy War." In The Holy War. Edited by Thomas Patrick Murphy. 9-32. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1976.

    *Erdmanns, Carl. The Origins of the Idea of the Crusade, trans. M. W. Baldwin and Walter Goffart. Princeton NJ: 1977.

    $Gilchrist, J. "The Erdmann Thesis and the Canon Law, 1083, 1141." In Crusade and Settlement: Papers Read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail. Edited by Peter Edbury. Cardiff, U.K.: University College Cardiff Press; Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Distributed in USA by Humanities Press, 1985.

    #Giezstor, Aleksandr. "The Genesis of the Crusades." Medievalia et Humanistica. (1948)

    $Head, Thomas, and Richard Landes, eds. The Peace of God. Social Violence and Religious Response in France around the Year 1000. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. 1992.

    *Head, Thomas.  "The Development of the Peace of God in Aquitaine (970-1006)." Speculum 74 (1999): 656-86.

    *Krueger, Hilmar C. "The Italian Cities and the Arabs before 1095." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 40-53. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Leyser, K. "The Tenth Century in Byzantine-Western Relationships." In Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages. Edited by Derek Baker. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1973.

    *Lopez, Robert S. "The Norman Conquest of Sicily." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 54-67. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. London: Athlone, 1986.

    *Runciman, Steven. "The Pilgrimages to Palestine before 1095." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 68-80. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Russell, Frederick H. The Just War in the Middle Ages. Cambridge; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1975.

    *Painter. Sidney. "Western Europe on the Eve of the Crusades." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 3-30. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Poschmann, B. Penance and the Anointing of the Sick. Translated and revised by T. Courtney. Freiburg and London: 1964

    Sumption, Jonathan. Pilgrimage: An Image of Medieval Religion. Totowa, NJ : Rowman and Littlefield, 1975

    *Tyerman, Christopher. The Invention of the Crusades, Toronto: Univerity of Toronto Press, 1998 ISBN: 0802081851

    Wilkinson, John. Jerusalem Pilgrims Before the Crusades. Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1977. ISBN: 0856680788

    Wilkinson, John, Joyce Hill and W. F. Ryan, eds, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, 1099-1185. Hakluyt Society Second Series Volume 167. Hakluyt Society, 1988. ISBN: 0-90418-021-2

    THE FIRST CRUSADE

    Sources

    $Anna Comnena. The Alexiad. Translated by E.R.A. Sewter. Baltimore: Penguin Books 1969.

    Anna Comnena. The Alexiad of Anna Comnena. Translated by Elizabeth A.S. Dawes. London, 1928. [Complete text online at Medieval Sourcebokk]

    Anonymous. The First Crusade, The Deeds of the Franks and other Jerusalemites; "Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum." Translated into English for the first time by Somerset de Chair. London: The Golden Cockerel Press, 1945.

    Anonymous. Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum. translated as The Deeds of the Franks and the Other Pilgrims to Jerusalem, by Rosalind Hill. New York: T. Nelson, 1962.

    *Charanis, Peter. "A Greek Source on the Origin of the First Crusade." Speculum 24:1. (1949):  93-94. [Online via Jstor]

    Cushing, Dana, ed. A Middle English Chronicle of the First Crusade - The Caxton Eracles. NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2001
    [The 1481 Middle English translation of the Eracles text, by William Caxton, which he called, A Boke Intituled Eracles, or Godefroy of Boloyne ]

    *Fulcher, de Chartres, 1058?-ca. 1127. A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127. Translated by Frances Rita Ryan. Edited with an introd. by Harold S. Fink. New York, W. W. Norton 1973, c1969.

    Fulcher of Chartres, Chronicle of the First Crusade. Translated Martha E. McGinty. London: Oxford University Press; Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1941.

    *Fulcher of Chartres. The First Crusade; The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and other source materials. Edited, with an introd. by Edward Peters. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press 1971. 2nd Rev edition (June 1998) University of Pennsylvania Press; ISBN: 0812216563

    Goitein, S. D. "Contemporary Letters on the Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders." Journal of Jewish Studies 3 (1952)

    France, S. "An Unknown Account of the Capture of Jerusalem." English Historical Review. 87 (1972)

    $Guibert, Abbot of Nogent-Sous-Coucy. The Deeds of God Through the Franks : A Translation of Guibert De Nogent's Gesta Dei Per Francos, trans. Robert Levine. Boydell & Brewer, 1997 ISBN: 0851156932

    Joranson, Einar. "The Spurious Letter of Alexius." American Historical Review 55 (1949-1950), 811-32. [Online via JSTOR]

    Krey, A.C. The First Crusade. The Accounts of Eye Witnesses and Participants. 1921.

    *Ordericus Vitalis, 1075-1143? Historia ecclesiastica. English. The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy. Translated, with notes, and the introd. of Guizot, by Thomas Forester. 4 Vols. London, H. G. Bohn, 1853-56.   Bohn's antiquarian library.  Translation of: Historiae ecclesiasticae libri XIII.  Reprinted, New York: AMS Press, 1968.  

    $Ordericus Vitalis, 1075-1143? The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis. Edited and translated with introduction and notes by Marjorie Chibnall. Oxford, Clarendon, 1969-1980. ISBN: 0198222432

    $Raimundus de Aguilers. Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem. Translated with introd. and notes by John Hugh Hill and Laurita L. Hill. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1968. ISBN: 0871690713

    $#Petrus Tudebodus [Peter Tudebode]. Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere. Translated with introd. and notes by John Hugh Hill and Laurita L. Hill. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1974.

    Secondary Literature

    Anderssohn, J.C. The Ancestry and Life of Godfrey of Bouillon, 1947

    Baldwin, Marshall W. Raymond III of Tripoli, 1936

    *Brundage, James A. "Adhemar of Puy. The Bishop and his Critics." Speculum. 34 (1959) [Available online via JSTOR]

    Brundage, James A. "The Army of the First Crusade and the Crusade Vow: Some Reflections on a Recent Book." Medieval Studies 33 (1971)

    *Bull Marcus. Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade: The Limousin and Gascony, C.970-C.1130. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1993.
    [Online via NetLibrary]

    #Cahen, C. "An Introduction to the First Crusade." Past and Present 6 (1954): 6-30.

    Cate, James Lea. "A Gay Crusader." Byzantion 16 (1942-1943): 503-26.

    *Cate, James Lea. "The Crusade of 1101." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 343-67. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Chazan, Robert. "The Hebrew First-Crusade Chronicles," Revue des etudes juives, CXXXII (1974): 235-54.

    *Cowdrey, H. E. J. "Pope Urban II's Preaching of the First Crusade." History 55 (1970): 177-88.

    Cowdrey, H. E. J. "Cluny and the First Crusade," Revue Bénédictine 83 (1975)

    David, Charles W. Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. 1920

    *Duncalf, Frederic. "The Peasants Crusade." American Historical Review 26 (1921): 440-53. [Available at UNF online via JSTOR]

    *Duncalf, Frederic. "The Councils of Piacenza and Clermont." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 220-254. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Duncalf, Frederic. "The First Crusade: Clermont to Constantinople." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 253-79. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Evans, Mark L. "The Battle of Arsuf." Military History 18:3 ( 2001): 34-41.

    *Foss, Michael. People of the First Crusade. New York: Arcade, 1997

    *France, John. "The Capture of Jerusalem." History Today April 1, 1997

    $France, John. "Patronage and the Appeal of the First Crusade." In The First Crusade: Origins and Impact. Edited by Jonathan Phillips. 5-20. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997
    Shows that the early crusaders needed support by upper echelons of society.

    *France, John. Victory in the East: a Military History of the First Crusade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

    Goodsell, D.A. Peter the Hermit. A Story of Enthusiasm. 1906

    Gore, Terry L. "The First Victory of the First Crusade: Dorylaeum, 1097 AD." Military History (June 1998). Online at www.thehistorynet.com/MilitaryHistory/articles/1998/06982_cover.htm

    *Hill, John H., and Laurita Littleton Hill. Raymond IV: Count of Toulouse. Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 1962

    Hill, John H., and Laurita Littleton Hill. "Contemporary Accounts and the Later Reputation of Adhémar, Bishop of Puy." Medievalia et Humanistica 9 (1955)

    *Krey, A.C. "Urban's Crusade: Success or Failure?" American Historical Review. 53 (1948): 235-50.  [Available online at UNF via JSTOR  (and other campuses with paid access)]

    McFall, J. Arthur. "Ill-Fated Crusade of the Poor People." Military History (Feb. 1998)  [Online at http://www.thehistorynet.com/MilitaryHistory/articles/1998/0298_text.htm ]

    McFall, J. Arthur. "Taking Jerusalem: Climax of the First Crusade." Military History (June 1999)  [Online at http://www.thehistorynet.com/MilitaryHistory/articles/1999/0699_text.htm ]

    *Morris, Colin. "The Case of the Holy Lance at Antioch." In War and Government in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of J.O. Prestwich. Edited by J.C. Holt & John Gillingham, 33-45. Cambridge UK: Boydell Press; Totowa NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1984

    *Munro, Dana C. "The Speech of Urban II at Clermont." American Historical Review 11 (1906), 231-40. [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Munro, Dana C. "Did the Emperor Alexius Ask for Aid at the Council of Piacenza 1095?" American Historical Review 27 (1922) [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Munro, Dana C. "A Crusader." [Presidential Address]. Speculum 7:3 (1932): 321-35.  [Available online via JSTOR]
    -looks at Fulcher of Chartes.

    Nicholson, R.L. Tancred, 1940

    $Phillips, Jonathan, ed, The First Crusade: Origins and Impact. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997 ISBN: 0719049857

    *Phillips, Jonathan. "Who Were the First Crusaders?" History Today 47:5 (March 1997): 16-22. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    *Porges, Walter. "The Clergy, the Poor, and the Non-combatants on the First Crusade." Speculum 21: 1 (1946): 1-23. [Online via JSTOR]

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991. ISBN: 0812213637 ;
    Riley-Smith's studies of the cost of crusading, the fact that heads of families often went, and the financial costs to families, undermined the "younger sons" theory of crusade motivations.

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders, 1095-1131. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997 ISBN: 0521646030/ ISBN: 0521590051 (hardcover)

    *Robinson, S. "Gregory VII and the Soldiers of Christ." History 58 (1973)

    *Runciman, Steven. "The First Crusade: Constantinople to Antioch." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 280-307. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Runciman, Steven. "The First Crusade: Antioch to Ascalon." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 308-42. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.'

    *Runciman, Steven. The First Crusade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980. ISBN: 0521427053
    -An abbreviation of Vol I of the History of the Crusades.

    Shepard, J. "When Greek meets Greek: Alexius Comnenus and Bohemond in 1097-98.", Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 12 (1988)

    Shlosser, F.E. "Byzantine Studies and the History of the Crusades: The Alexiad of Anna Comnena as a sources for the Crusades." Byzantinische Forschungen 15 (1990)

    Somerville, Robert. "The Councils of Urban II: Decreta Claromontensia." Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum, Supplementum 1 (1972)

    Spence, Richard T. Pope Gregory IX and the Crusade. Ph.D Dissertation: Syracuse University, 1978.

    #Wolf, Kenneth Baxter. "Crusade and Narrative: Bohemond and the Gesta Francorum." Journal of Medieval History 17 (1991): 207-16.

    *Wiruszowski, Helene. "The Norman Kingdom of Sicily and the Crusades." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 3-44. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Yewdale, R.B. Bohemond I, 1924

    THE SECOND CRUSADE

    Sources

    $Bernard of Clairvaux. The Letters of St. Bernard. Translated by Bruno Scott James. London: Burns and Oates, 1963.

    $Odo de Deuil, Abbot of Saint Denis, d. ca. 1162. De profectione Ludovici VII in orientem, ed., with an English translation, by Virginia Gingerick Berry, New York, Columbia University Press, 1948.

    *Otto I, Bishop of Freising, d. 1158. The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, by Otto of Freising and his Continuator, Rahewin; translated and annotated with an introd. by Charles Christopher Mierow (with the collaboration of Richard Emery). New York: Columbia University Press, 1953; reprint , Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995 ISBN: 0802075746

    $Otto I, Bishop of Freising, d. 1158. The Two Cities: A Chronicle of Universal History to the Year 1146 A.D., by Otto, Bishop of Freising, trans. Charles Christopher Mierow. New York: Columbia University Press, 1928.

    $Osbernus [?]. De expugnatione Lyxbonensi. The conquest of Lisbon. Edited from the unique manuscript in Corpus Cristi College, Cambridge, with a translation into English by Charles Wendell David. New York : Columbia UniversityPress, 1936.

    Secondary Literature

    *Berry, Virginia G. "The Second Crusade." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 463-512. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Constable, Giles. "The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries." Traditio 9 (1953): 213-79.

    Forey, Alan J. "The Failure of the Siege of Damascus." Journal of Medieval History 10 (1984): 3-24.

    $Gervers, Michael, ed. The Second Crusade and the Cistercians, New York: St. Martins Press, 1992. ISBN: 0312056079

    $Grabois, A. "The Crusade of Louis VII: A Reconsideration." In Crusade and Settlement: Papers Read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail. Edited by Peter Edbury. 94-104. Cardiff, U.K.: University College Cardiff Press; Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Distributed in USA by Humanities Press, 1985.

    Pacaut, Marcel. Frederick Barbarossa. Translated by A. J. Pomerans. London, Collins, 1970.

    #Philips, Jonathan, and Martin Hoch, eds.. The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.
        Jonathan Philips, "Papacy empire and the Second Crusade";
        Rudolf Hiestand, "The Papacy and the Second Crusade";
        Susan Edgington, "Albert of Aachen, St Bernard and the Second Crusade and the Lisbon Letter - a translation";
        Matthew Bennett, "Military Aspects of the capture of Lisbon";
        Nikolas Jaspert, "Capta est Dertosa, clavis Christianorum - Tortosa and the Crusades";
        Carole Hillenbrand, "The Coming and Impact of the Second Crusade";
        Linda Patterson, "Tales of the Undead: Who was the Count in Marcabru's Vel del lavador";
        Timothy Reuter, "The non-Crusade of 1150";
        Kurt Willads Jensen, "Denmark and the Second Crusade: The Formation of a Crusader State";
        Martin Hoch, "The Price of Failure: The Second Crusade as a Turning Point in the History of the Latin East?"

    Raedts, Peter. "St. Bernard of Clairvaux and Jerusalem." In The Centrality of Jerusalem: Historical Perspectives. Edited by M. Poorhuis and C. Safrai. Kampen: Kok Pharos, 1996.

    *Studies in Medieval Cistercian History. Presented to Jeremiah F. O'Sullivan. Shannon: Irish University Press, 1971.
    Contents: O'Callaghan, J. F. Preface.--Donnelly, J. S. Dedication.--Lackner, B. K. The liturgy of early Citeaux.-- Sommerfeldt, J. R. The social theory of Bernard of Clairvaux.--Constable, G. A report of a lost sermon by St. Bernard on the failure of the second crusade.--Brundage, J. A. A transformed angel (X 3.31.18): the problem of the crusading monk.--O'Callaghan, J. F. The order of Calatrava and the archbishops of Toledo, 1147-1245.-- Buczek, D. S. "Pro defendendis ordinis": the French Cistercians and their enemies.--Hays, R. W. The Welsh monasteries and the Edwardian conquest.--Desmond L. A. The statute of Carlisle and the Cistercians, 1298- 1369.--Telesca, W. J. The Cisterican dilemma at the close of the Middle Ages: Gallicanism or Rome.--Volz, C. Martin Luther's attitude toward Bernard of Clairvaux.--Bibliography of studies by Jeremiah F. O'Sullivan (p. 205)

    *Tyerman, Christopher J. "Were there Any Crusades in the Twelfth Century." English Historical Review 110 (1995): 553--78. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    THE THIRD CRUSADE

    Sources

    $Ambroise, fl. ca. 1196. L'Estoire de la guerre saint, trans. as The Crusade of Richard Lion-Heart, by Ambroise, translated from the Old French. Translated by Merton Jerome Hubert ... with notes and documentation by John L. La Monte. New York: Columbia University Press, 1941.
    [Note, the history ascribed to Vinsauf in Richard of Devizes, Chronicle of the Crusades, below, The chronicle here attributed to Geoffrey de Vinsauf is now shown to be, in large part, a Latin translation of Ambrose's L'estoire de la guerre sainte, probably made by Richard, canon and prior of Holy Trinity, London, about 1200. cf. Gross, Sources and Literature of English History.]

    Anonymous. The Crusade and Death of Richard I. Translated by R.C. Johnston (1961)

    Anonymous. The Third Crusade. An Eye-witness Account of the Campaigns of Richard Coeur de Lion in Cyprus and the Holy Land. Translated by K. Fenwick (1958)

    $Archer, Thomas A., Crusade of Richard I, 1189-92 (English History from Contemporary Writers.) 1st AMS edition, New York: AMS Press, 1989. ISBN: 0404154085

    $Chronicle of the Third Crusade: A Translation of the Itinerarium Peregrinorum Et Gesta Regis Ricardi by Ricardus, Helen J. Nicholson, William Stubbs. Brookfield VT: Ashgate/Scolar Press, 1997. ISBN: 1859281540

    Dajani-Shakeel, Hadia. "Some Medieval Accounts of Salah al-Din's Recovery of Jerusalem (Al-Quds)" in Hisham Nashabe (ed) Studia Palaestina: Studies in honour of Constantine K. Zurayk, Institute for Palestine Studies, Beirut 1988.

    $#Edbury, Peter W. The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Broofield VT: Ashgate/Scolar Press, 1998. ISBN: 1-84014-676-1
    Contents: PART I: The Old French Continuation of William of Tyre, 1184-97; PART II - Selected Sources: The Marriage of Guy of Lusignan and Sibylla (1180); The Coronation of Guy and Sibylla (1186); The Battle of Cresson (1 May 1187); The Battle of Hattin (4 July 1187) and its Aftermath; The Repercussions of Defeat; The Siege of Acre (1189-91); Richard the Lionheart in the Holy Land (1191-92).

    Gerald of Wales. Itinerary through Wales. Translated by Lewis Thorpe. New York: 1978.
    Includes Gerald's account of preaching the crusade, and the effects of the preaching on the people.

    Pope Gregory VIII. Bull Audita tremendi (October-November 1187). In Crusades: Idea and Reality 1095-1274. Documents of Medieval History, 4. Edited by Louise Riley-Smith, and Jonathan Riley-Smith. 63-67. London: Edward Arnold, 1981.

    $Ibn Shaddad, Baha' al-Din Yusuf ibn Rafi', 1145-1234. The Life of Saladin. By Beha ed-Din (1137-1193 A.D.). Translated by C.W. Wilson, Library of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society; v. 13. London: 1897.

    Richard of Devises. Chronicon. as The Chronicle of Richard of Devizes. Edited and translated by J.T. Appleby. Vaduz: Kraus Reprint, 1963.

    *Richard of Devizes. Chronicles of the Crusades: being contemporary narratives of the crusade of Richard Coeur de Lion / by Richard of Devizes and Geoffrey de Vinsauf ; and of the Crusade of St. Louis, by Lord John de Joinville, London ; H. G. Bohn, 1848; reissued New York: AMS, 1969

    Secondary Literature

    *Baldwin, Marshall W. "The Decline and Fall of Jerusalem, 1174-1189." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 590-621. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Brand, Charles M. "The Byzantines and Saladin, 1185-1192: Opponents of the Third Crusade." Speculum 37 (1962): 167-81. [Available online via JSTOR]

    Brundage, James A. Richard Lion Heart. New York: Scribner, 1974.

    *Brundage, James A. "The Crusade of Richard I: Two Canonical Quaestiones." Speculum 38:3 (1963): 443-452 [Online via JSTOR]

    Chazan, Robert. "The Emperor Frederick I, the Third Crusade and the Jews." Viator 8 (1977): 83-93.

    $Edbury, Peter W. "Preaching the Crusade in Wales." In England and Germany in the High Middle Ages. Edited by Alfred Haverkamp and Hanna Vollrath. London: German Historical Institute London; Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

    Flahiff, G.B. "Deus non vult. A Critic of the Third Crusade." Medieval Studies 9 (1947)

    Hamilton, Bernard. "The Elephant of Christ: Reynald of Chatillon." Studies in Church History 15 (1978), 97-108. Reprinted in Bernard Hamilton. Monastic Reform, Catharism, and the Crusades, (900-1300). London: Variorum Reprints, 1979.

    *Housley, Norman. "Saladin's Triumph over the Crusader States: the Battle of Hattin, 1187." History Today 37 (1987)

    $Gal, Z. "Saladin's Dome of Victory at the Horns of Hattin." In The Horns of Hattin. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar. London: Variorum, 1992.

    *Gillingham, John. Richard the Lionheart. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1978.

    $Gillingham, John. Richard Coeur-de-Lion: Kingship, Chivalry and War in the Twelfth Century. London; Rio Grande, Ohio: Hambledon Press, 1994.

    $Gillingham, John. "Richard I and Berengaria of Navarre." John Gillingham. Richard Coeur-de-Lion: Kingship, Chivalry and War in the Twelfth Century. London; Rio Grande, Ohio: Hambledon Press, 1994.

    *Johnson, Edgar N. "The Crusades of Frederick Barbarossa and Henry VI." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 87-122. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Kedar, Benjamin Z. ed., The Horns of Hattin. London: Variorum, 1992 ISBN: 0860783340
    Contents: Address, President Chaim Herzog; Who went on Crusades to the Holy Land?, Christopher Tyerman; Jerusalem and the development of the crusade idea, 1099-1128, Norman Housley; Canon law and the first Crusade, H E J Cowdrey; Norman Italy and the Holy Land, Graham A Loud; The counts of Toulouse, the reformed canons and the Holy Sepulcher, Thomas W Lyman; Topography and iconography in 12th-century Jerusalem, Molly Linder; The cathedral of Sebaste: its Western donors and models, Nurith Kenaan-Kedar; The beginnings of King Amalric of Jerusalem, Hans Eberhard Mayer; Miles of Plancy and the Fief of Beirut, Bernard Hamilton; Aqua Bella: the interpretation of a Crusader courtyard building, Denys Pringle; Construction methods in Frankish rural settlements, Ronny Ellenblum; The battle of Hattin revisited, Benjamin Z Kedar; Saladin's Hattin Letter, C P Melville, M C Lyons; Saladin's dome of victory at the Horns of Hattin, Zvi Gal; The lost Crusader castle of Tiberias, Zvi Razi, Eliot Braun; Saladin and Muslim military theory, William Hamblin; The native Christians of Jerusalem, 1187-1260, Richard B Rose; 1187: Point de départ pour une nouvelle forme de croisade, Jean Richard; Peter of Blois and the conception of the Third Crusade, Michael Markowski; The Eracles and William of Tyre: an interim report, John H Pryor; The role of women in the Fifth Crusade, James M Powell; Humbert of Romans and the legitimacy of Crusader conquests, James A Brundage; Supplying the Crusader states: the role of the Templars, Malcolm Barber; Arms and armor illustrated in the art of the Latin East, David C Nicolle; Symposium: The crusading kingdoms of Jerusalem - The first European colonial society?.

    $Kedar, Benjamin Z. "The Battle of Hattin Revisited." In The Horns of Hattin. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar. London: Variorum, 1992.

    $Kedar, Benjamin Z. "A Western Survey of Saladin's Forces at the Siege of Acre In Montjoie: Studies in Crusade History in Honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar and Jonathan Riley-Smith. London: Variorum, 1997

    $Markowski, Michael. "Peter of Blois and the Conception of the Third Crusade." In Outremer: Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem Presented to Joshua Prawer. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar, H.E. Mayer, R.C. Smail. Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Institute, 1982.

    *Markowski, Michael. "Richard Lionheart: Bad King, Bad Crusader?" Journal of Medieval History 23 (1997): 351-65. [Online at Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Mayer, Hans Eberhard. "Henry II of England and the Holy Land." English Historical Review 97 (1982) [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Matthews, John and Bob Stewart. Warriors of Christendom : Charlemagne, El Cid, Barbarossa, Richard Lionheart. Poole, Dorset : Firebird Books ; New York, NY : Distributed in the U.S. by Sterling Pub. Co., 1988.

    $Melville, C.P.,and M.C. Lyons. "Saladin's Hattin Letter." In The Horns of Hattin. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar. London: Variorum, 1992.

    Morgan, M.R. "The Meanings of the Old French polain, Latin pullanus." Medium Aevum 48 (1979)

    *Nicholson, Helen. "Women on the Third Crusade." Journal of Medieval History 23 (1997): 335-49. [Online at Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Nicholson, Helen. "Following the path of the Lionheart: the De ortu Walwanii and the Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta Regis Ricardi." Medium Aevum  69:1 (2000): 21-33  [Online via WilsonSelect]

    Norgate, Kate. Richard the Lion Heart, 1924

    *Painter, Sidney. "The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 45-87. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Prestwich, J.O. "'Richard Coeur de Lion; Rex Bellicosus." In Richard Coeur de Lion in History and Myth. Edited by Janet L. Nelson. London: King's College London, Centre for Late Antique and Medieval Studies, 1992.

    Pringle, Denys. "King Richard I and the Walls of Ascalon." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 116 (1984)

    *Regan, Geoffrey. Lionhearts: Saladin, Richard I, and the Era of the Third Crusade. New York: Walker, 1999.
    -No footnotes! Avoid.

    *Richard, Jean. "An Account of the Battle of Hattin referring to the Frankish Mercenaries in Oriental Moslem States." Speculum 27 (1952): 168-77. [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Sayers, J. "English Charters from the Third Crusade." In Tradition and Change: Essays in Honour of Marjorie Chibnall. Edited by edited by Diana Greenway, Christopher Holdsworth, and Jane Sayers. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

    $Smail, R.C. "The Predicaments of Guy of Lusignan, 1183-87." in Outremer: Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem Presented to Joshua Prawer. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar, H.E. Mayer, R.C. Smail. Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Institute, 1982.

    *Sommerfeldt, John R. "The Bernardine Reform and the Crusading Spirit." The Catholic Historical Review  86:4 (2000): 567-78. [Online via WilsonSelect]

    $Southern, Richard W. "Peter of Blois and the Third Crusade." In Studies in Medieval History Presented to R.H.C. Davis. Edited by Henry Mayr-Harting and R.I. Moore. London; Ronceverte WV: Hambledon Press, 1985.

    *Turner, Ralph V. and Richard R. Heiser.  The Reign of Richard Lionheart : Ruler of the Angevin Empire, 1189-99.  Harlow, England; New York: Longman, 2000.

    OTHER 12TH CENTURY EXPEDITIONS

    Sources

    Secondary Literature

    Doxey, Gary B. "Norwegian Crusaders and the Balearic Islands." Scandinavian Studies 68 (1996): 139-60. [Online via WilsonSelect]
    -On the Norwegian crusaders in 1106.

    Favreau-Lilie, Marie-Luise. "The German Empire and Palestine: German Pilgrimages to Jerusalem between the 12th and 16th Centuries." Journal of Medieval History 21 (1995), 321-41.[Online at Elsevier Science Journals]

    THE FOURTH CRUSADE

    -- See also the section below on Crusaders and Byzantium

    Sources

    Anonymous. Li estoire de chiaus qui conquisent Constantinople. Translated by E.N. Stone

    *Gunther, von Pairis, ca. 1150-ca. 1210. Hystoria Constantinopolitana. English. as The Capture of Constantinople: The Hystoria Constantinopolitana of Gunther of Pairis. Edited and translated by Alfred J. Andrea. Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, c1997.

    *Nicetas Choniates, ca. 1140-1213. O City of Byzantium: annals of Niketas Choniates. Translated by Harry I. Magoulias. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984.

    Novgorodskaia letopis. as The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-1471. Translated by Robert Michell and Nevill Forbes. (Camden Society: 3rd Series 25: 1914) London, Offices of the Society, 1914, Reprint, New York, AMS Press, 1970

    *Robert de Clari. The Conquest of Constantinople. Translated by Edgar Holmes McNeal, 1936, reprint, University of Toronto Press, 1997. ISBN: 0802078230

    *Geoffrey de Villehardouin. The Conquest of Constantinople. Translated in M.R.B. Shaw, Joinville and Villehardouin: chronicles of the Crusades, Penguin Books, 1963.

    *Geoffrey de Villehardouin. The Conquest of Constantinople. in Chronicles of the crusades, by Villehardouin & De Joinville, translated by Sir Frank Marzials, (London, Dent; New York, Dutton [introd. 1908])
    Available on the Internet at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/villehardouin.html

    Three Old French Chronicles of the Crusades: The History of the Holy War, The History of Them that Took Constantinople, The Chronicle of Reims.   Translated by Edward Noble Stone. Seattle, WA: The University of Washington, 1939.

    Secondary Literature

    [Note: All the standard histories of Byzantium cover the Fourth Crusade. They are not listed here.]

    *Angold, Michael. "The State of Research: the Byzantine Background to the Fourth Crusade." Journal of Medieval History 25:3 (1999): 257-78. [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    Andrea, A.J., and I. Motsiff. "Pope Innocent III and the Diversion of the Fourth Crusade Army to Zara." Byzantinoslavica 33 (1972)

    *Bartlett, W. B. An Ungodly War: The Sack of Constantinople & the Fourth Crusade. Stroud: Sutton, 2000.
    A "popularization." Ignore it.

    Beer, Jeanette M. A.. Villehardouin: Epic Historian. Geneva: Droz, 1968.

    *Brand, Charles M. "A Byzantine Plan of the Fourth Crusade." Speculum 43 (1968): 462-75. [Available online via JSTOR]

    Folda, Jaroslav. "The Fourth Crusade: Some Reconsiderations." Byzantinoslavica 26 (1965)

    *Fotheringham, J.K. "Genoa and the Fourth Crusade." English Historical Review 25 (1910) [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Godfrey, J. "Venice and the Fourth Crusade." History Today. 26 (1976)

    *Godfrey, John. 1204, The Unholy Crusade. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

    *Harris, Jonathan. "Distortion, Divine Providence and Genre in Nicetas Choniate's Account of the Collapse of Byzantium, 1180-1204." Journal of Medieval history 26:1 (2000): 19-31. [Online at Elsevier Science Journals]

    Madden, Thomas. "Outside and Inside the Fourth Crusade." International History Review 17 (1995)

    *McNeal, Edgar H. and Robert Lee Wolf. "The Fourth Crusade." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 153-87. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Morris, C. "Geoffrey de Villehardouin and the Conquest of Constantinople." History 53 (1968), 24-34.

    Pears, E. The Fall of Constantinople. Being the Story of the Fourth Crusade (1885)

    *Queller, Donald E. "The Fourth Crusade: The Neglected Majority." Speculum. 49 (1974): 441-65. [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Queller, Donald E. and G.W. Day. "Some Arguments in the Defense of the Venetians on the Fourth Crusade." American Historical Review 81 (1976): 717-37. [Available online via JSTOR]

    $Queller, Donald E. Medieval Diplomacy and the Fourth Crusade. London: Variorum Reprints, 1980.

    *Queller, Donald. The Fourth Crusade: the conquest of Constantinople 1201-1204, Philadelphia, 1977 (Leicester, 1978). 2d ed, with Thomas F. Madden. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. ISBN: 0812233875

    Schmandt, R.H. "The Fourth Crusade and the Just-War Theory." Catholic Historical Review 61 (1975)

    *Swietek, Francis R. "Gunther of Pairis and the Historia Constantinopolitana." Speculum  53: 1. (1978): 49-79. [Available online via JSTOR]

    $Tillman, Helene. Pope Innocent III. Translated by Walter Sax. Amsterdam; New York: North-Holland, 1980.

    *Wolff, Robert L. "Baldwin of Flanders and Hainhault: First Latin Emperor of Constantinople." Speculum 27 (1952): 281-332 [Available online via JSTOR]

    THE FIFTH CRUSADE

    Sources

    *Christian society and the Crusades, 1198-1229: Sources in Translation, including The Capture of Damietta by Oliver of Paderborn. Translated with notes by John J. Gavigan. Edited, with an introd. by Edward Peters. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971 ISBN 0812210247

    *Constitutions Regni Siciliae. English as The Liber Augustalis; or, Constitutions of Melfi, promulgated by the Emperor Frederick II for the Kingdom of Sicily in 1231. Translated by James M. Powell. Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press. 1971

    $Philippe of Novara, 13th century. "Memoirs" from the Gestes de Chiprois trans as The Wars of Frederick II against the Ibelins in Syria and Cyprus by Philip de Novare. Translated, with notes and introduction, by John L. La Monte. With verse translation of the poems by Merton Jerome Hubert. New York: Columbia University Press, 1936.

    Secondary Literature

    *Abulafia, David. Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. London : Allen Lane, 1988.

    *Powell, James M. Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213-1221. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.

    *Powell, James M. "Patriarch Gerold and Frederick II: the Matthew Paris Letter." Journal of Medieval History  25:1 (1999): 16-26.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    Donovan, Joseph Patrick. Pelagius and the Fifth Crusade. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950. Reprint, NewYork : AMS Press, 1978.

    *Kantorowicz, Ernst. Frederick II, 1194-1250. Translated by E. O. Lorimer. New York: F. Ungar, 1957. (German version, 1931)

    *Rousseau, Constance M. . "A Papal Matchmaker: Principle and Pragmatism during Innocent III's Pontificate." Journal of Medieval History  24:3 (1999): 259-71.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Van Cleve, Thomas C. "The Fifth Crusade." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 377-428. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Van Cleve, Thomas. The Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, immutator mundi. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1972.

    THE SIXTH AND LATER CRUSADES

    Sources

    *Al- Makrisi. Arab Account of the Crusade of St. Louis in Essulouk li Mariset il Muluk [The Road to Knowledge of the Return of Kings], translated in Chronicles of the Crusades. Edited by H.G.B. 535-556. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1848: reissued New York: AMS Press, 1969
    Online at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/makrisi.html

    *Jean de Joinville, c.1224-c1317. History of St. Louis. Translated in M.R.B. Shaw, Joinville and Villehardouin: chronicles of the Crusades, Penguin Books, 1963.

    *Jean de Joinville, c.1224-c1317: Life of St. Louis. In Chronicles of the Crusades: being contemporary narratives of the crusade of Richard Coeur de Lion / by Richard of Devizes and Geoffrey de Vinsauf ; and of the crusade of St. Louis, by Lord John de Joinville. London: H. G. Bohn, 1848.

    *Jean de Joinville, c.1224-c1317. Life of St. Louis. in Chronicles of the crusades, by Villehardouin & De Joinville. Translated by Sir Frank Marzials. (London: Dent; New York, Dutton, [introd.] 1908.

    Jean de Joinville, c.1224-c1317. The history of Saint Louis. Translated from the French text edited by Natalis de Wailly, by Joan Evans. Newtown, Montgomeryshire [Wales] : Gregynog Press, 1937.

    Jean de Joinville, c.1224-c1317. The Life of St. Louis, translated by Rene Hague from the text edited by Natalis de Wailly. New York : Sheed and Ward, 1955.

    *Jean de Joinville, c.1224-c1317, Life of St. Louis. in Shaw, Margaret R. B. Chronicles of the Crusades. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1963

    Secondary Literature

    *Jordan, William C. Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade: A Study in Rulership. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979.  

    Perry, F. St. Louis. 1901.

    Sepet, M. St. Louis. Translated by G. Tyrrell. 1899.

    *Strayer, Joseph R. "The Crusades of Louis IX." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 487-521. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    OTHER 13TH CENTURY EXPEDITIONS

    Sources

    Munro. Dana C, ed. and trans. Letters of the Crusaders. rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Dept. of History of the University of Pennsylvania; New York : Longmans, Green & Co., 1902.

    Secondary Literature: General

    Beebe, B. "The English Baronage and the Crusade of 1270." Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 48 (1975)

    *Burns, Robert I. "The Crusade against Al-Azraq: A Thirteenth-Century Mudejar Revolt in International Perspective." The American Historical Review 93:1 (1988): 80-106. [Online via JSTOR]

    #Dickson, Gary. "The Flagellants and the Crusades." Journal of Medieval History 15 (1989), 227-67.

    Kennan, E. "Innocent III and the First Political Crusade." Traditio 27 (1971), 231-49.

    *Painter, Sydney. "The Crusade of Theobald of Champagne and Richard of Cornwall, 1239-1241." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 463-87. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Strayer, Joseph R. "The Crusade against Aragon." Speculum 28:1 (1953): 102-13. [Online via JSTOR]

    *Strayer, Joseph R. "The Political Crusades of the Thirteenth Century." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 343-77. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Van Cleve, Thomas C. "The Crusade of Frederick II." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 429-63. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Secondary Literature: Children's Crusade

    *"Fairly Holy Innocents." [On "Children's Crusade" of 1212] The Economist (Dec 23 2000): 4. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    *Dickson, Gary. "Encounters in Medieval Revivalism: Monks Friars and Popular Enthusiasts." Church History 68 (1999): 265-93. [Online via WilsonSelect]

    *Gray, George Zabriskie. The Children's Crusade. 1870, reprint, New York: William Morrow, 1972

    *Munro, Dana C. "The Children's Crusade." American Historical Review 19 (1914) [Available online via JSTOR]

    #Raedts, Peter.  "The Children's Crusade of 1212." Journal of Medieval History 3 (1977): 279-323.

    #Siberry, Elizabeth. "Fact and Fiction: Children and the Crusades." In The Church and Childhood. Edited by Diana Wood. 417-26. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.

    Steffens, Bradley. The Children's Crusade (World Disasters). Lucent Books, 1991. ISBN: 1560060190

    Thorburn, Douglas. "The Children's Crusade." Holmes Macdougal, History 11-13. Studies in Empathy 2 (Edinburgh: 1985).

    *Zacour, Norman P. "The Children's Crusade." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 325-43. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Secondary Literature: Shepherds' Crusade

    Dickson, Gary. "The Advent of the Pastores (1251)." Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire 66.2 (1988), 249-67.

    CRUSADES IN THE LATER MIDDLE AGES

    Sources

    *Housley, Norman, ed.. Documents on the Later Crusades, 1274-1580. Documents in History Series. New York: St Martins Press, 1996 ISBN: 0312161786

    Crawford, Paul, trans.  The Templar of Tyre. Brookfield VT: Ashgate/Scolar, forthcoming.

    *Dubois, Pierre, fl 1300. The Recovery of the Holy Land. Translated by W.I. Brandt. New York, Columbia University Press, 1956.

    Secondary Literature

    *Atiya, Aziz S. "The Crusade in the Fourteenth Century." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 3-26. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Atiya, Aziz S. The Crusade in the Later Middle Ages. 2d ed. New York, Kraus Reprint, 1965.

    $Atiya, Aziz. The Crusade of Nicopolis. London: Methuen, 1934. Repr. New York: AMS Press, 1978.

    *Beazley, C. Raymond. "Prince Henry of Portugal and the African Crusade of the Fifteenth Century." The American Historical Review 16:1 (1910): 11-23. [Online via JSTOR]

    *Dickson, Gary. "The crowd at the feet of Pope Boniface VIII: pilgrimage, crusade and the first Roman Jubilee (1300)." Journal of Medieval History 25:4  (1999): 279–307. [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    $Housley, Norman. The Italian Crusades: the Papal-Angevin alliance and the Crusades against Christian Lay Powers, 1254-1343, Oxford: Clarendon, 1982 ISBN: 0198219253

    *Housley, Norman. The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades, 1305-1378, Oxford, 1986.

    Housley, Norman. Crusading and Warfare in Medieval and Renaissance Europe. Variorum Collected Studies Series. Brookfield VT: Ashgate,  2001
        A collection of papers by Norman Housley, including: 
            Crusades against Christians: their origins and early development, c. 1000-1216;
            Politics and heresy in Italy: anti-heretical crusades, orders and confraternities, 1200–1500;
            The eschatological imperative: messianism and holy war in Europe, 1260–1556;
            I registri angioini ricostruiti e le crociate; Frontier societies and crusading in the late Middle Ages;
            Cyprus and the crusades, 1291–1571;
            France, England and the "national crusade", 1302–1386;
            Insurrection as religious war, 1400–1536;
            Jerusalem and the development of the crusade idea, 1099–1128;
            Charles II of Naples and the kingdom of Jerusalem;
            Pope Clement V and the crusades of 1309–10; The Franco-papal crusade negotiations of 1322–23;
            Angevin Naples and the defence of the Latin east: Robert the Wise and the naval league of 1334;
            King Louis the Great of Hungary and the crusades, 1342–1382;
            The mercenary companies, the papacy and the crusades, 1356–1378;
            Le maréchal Boucicaut à Nicopolis;
            Crusading as social revolt: The Hungarian peasant uprising of 1514;
            A necessary evil? Erasmus, the crusade, and war against the Turks.

    *Schwoebel, Robert H. "Coexistence, Conversion, and the Crusade Against the Turks." Studies in the Renaissance 12 (1965): 164-87. [Online via JSTOR]

    $Housley, Norman. The Later Crusades: from Lyon to Alcazar, 1274-1580, London: Oxford University Press, 1992. ISBN: 0198221363
    -Housely has clearly replaced Atiya as the leading scholar in this field.

    *Housley, Norman. "The Crusading Movement, 1274-1700." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 260-93. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    *Housley, Norman. "Historiographical Essay: Insurrection as Religious War, 1400-1536." Journal of Medieval History  25:2 (1999): 141-54.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Laiou, Angeliki. "Marino Sanudo Torsello, Byzantium and the Turks: The Background to the Anti-Turkish League of 1332-1334." Speculum 45:3 (1970): 374-92. [Online via JSTOR]

    $Luttrell, Anthony. " The Crusade in the Fourteenth Century." In Europe in the Later Middle Ages. Edited by J.R. Hale, J.R.L. Highfield B. Smalley. London: Faber and Faber, 1965.

    *Petkov, Kiril. "The Rotten Apple and the Good Apples: Orthodox, Catholics, and Turks in Philippe de Mézières' Crusading Propoganda." Journal of Medieval History  23:3 (1997): 255-70.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Saul, Nigel. "The Vanishing Vision: Late Medieval Crusading." History Today 47:6  (June 1997): 23-29. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    Tyerman, Christopher. "Marino Sanudo Torsello and the Lost Crusade: Lobbying in the Fourteenth Century." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society ser. 5, 32 (1982).

    THE LATIN STATES IN PALESTINE

    Sources

    $Jacques de Vitry, ca. 1170-1240. The History of Jerusalem. A.D. 1180, trans. Aubrey Stewart, Library of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society; v. 11, no. 2.London, 1896.  Reprinted,  New York : AMS Press, 1971

    $Joannes Wirzburgensis [Joh of Würzburg], 12th century. Description of the Holy Land by John of Wurzburg. (A.D. 1160-1170) Translated by Aubrey Stewart ... with notes by Col. Sir Charles W. Wilson, Library of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society; v.5, no. 2., London, 1896.

    $Matthew of Edessa, Armenia and the Crusades: Tenth to Twelfth Centuries: The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa (ArmenianHeritage) by Matthew, Ara Edmond Dostourian, Grigor. New York: University Press of America, 1993. ISBN: 0819189537

    *Morgan, Margaret Ruth, translator. The Chronicle of Ernoul and the Continuations of William of Tyre. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.

    $William of Tyre. A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea. Translated by Emily A. Babcock and A.C. Krey., 2 Vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

    William, of Tyre, Archbishop of Tyre, ca. 1130-ca. 1190. Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum. English The boke intitulede Eracles and ... of Godefrey of Boloyne. Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum; New York: Da Capo Press, 1973.

    $Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century: The Rothelin Continuation of the History of William of Tyre With Part of the Eracles or Acre Text. Translated by Janet Shirley. Ashgate, 1999. ISBN: 1840146060

    Secondary Literature

    *Attiya, Hussein M. "Knowledge of Arabic in the Crusader States in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries." Journal of Medieval History 25:3 (1999): 203-13. [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Baldwin, Marshall W. "The Latin States under Baldwin III and Amalric I, 1143-1174." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 528-62. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Ben-Ami, Aharon. Social Change in a Hostile Environment: The Crusaders' Kingdom of Jerusalem. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1969.

    *Benvenisti, Meron. The Crusaders in the Holy Land. 1st American ed.; New York: Macmillan 1972, c1970.

    $Boas, Adrian J. Crusader Archaeology: The Material Culture of the Latin East, New York: Routledge, 1999. ISBN: 0415173612

    #Boas, Adrain J. Jerusalem in the time of the Crusades: Society, landscape and art in the Holy City under Frankish rule. London: Routledge, 2001

    *Davis, R.H.C. "William of Tyre." In Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages. Edited by Derek Baker. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1973.

    Mitchell, P D. "Leprosy and the case of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem: Mycobacterial Disease in the Crusader States of the 12th and 13th centuries, International Journal of Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases: Official Organ of the International Leprosy Association. 61: 2 (1993): 283-91.

    *Der Nersessian, Sirarpie. "The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 630-60. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Edbury, Peter W. and J.G. Rowe. "William of Tyre and the Patriarchal Election of 1180." English Historical Review 93 (1980) [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Edbury, Peter W. William of Tyre. Historian of the Latin East. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. [Lost from library?]

    $Edbury, Peter W., ed. Crusade and Settlement: Papers Read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail. Cardiff, U.K.: University College Cardiff Press; Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Distributed in USA by Humanities Press, 1985.

    $Edbury, Peter W. "Propaganda and Faction in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: the Background to Hattin." In Crusaders and Muslims, ed. Maya Shatzmiller. Leiden: Brill, 1993.

    Edbury, Peter W. "The Lyon Eracles and the Old French Continuations of William of Tyre." In Montjoie: Studies in Crusade History in Honour of Hans Eberhard Mayer. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar and Jonathan Riley-Smith. London: Variorum, 1997.

    *Edbury, Peter W. "The Livre des Assises by John of Jaffa: the Development and Transmission of the Text." In The Crusades and their Sources: Essays presented to Bernard Hamilton. Edited by John France and W.G. Zajac. 164-74. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.

    $Edbury, Peter W., Kingdoms of the Crusaders: From Jerusalem to Cyprus. London: Variorum Collected Studies Series CS653. London: Variorum, 1999.
    Contents: The Kingdom of Jerusalem: Propaganda and faction in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: the background to Hattin; William of Tyre and the patriarchical election of 1180; Feudal obligations in the Latin East; The baronial coinage of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem; Part II: Lawyers and Legal Texts: The disputed regency of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1264/6 and 1268; The Ibelin counts of Jaffa: a previously unknown passage from the "Lignages d'Outremer"; John of Ibelin's title to the County of Jaffa and Ascalon; John of Jaffa and the Kingdom of Cyprus; Law and custom in the Latin East: Les Letres dou Sepulcre; The "Livre" of Geoffrey le Tor and the "Assises" of Jerusalem; Part III: Cyprus under the Lusignan Kings: The Lusignan Kingdom of Cyprus and its Muslim neighbours; The Crusading policy of King Peter I of Cyprus; The murder of King Peter I of Cyprus (1359­1369); Cyprus and Genoa: the origins of the war of 1373­4; The aftermath of defeat: Lusignan Cyprus and the Genoese, 1374­1382; Cyprus: Town and Countryside: Famagusta in 1300; Famagusta society ca. 1300 from the registers of Lamberto di Sambuceto; The Genoese community in Famagusta around the year 1300: a historical vignette; The Franco-Cypriot landowning class and its exploitation of the agrarian resources of the island of Cyprus; The Lusignan regime in Cyprus and the indigenous population; Latin dioceses and Peristerona: a contribution to the topography of Lusignan Cyprus; Addenda et corrigenda.

    *Fink, Harold S., "The Foundation of the Latin States, 1099-1118." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 368-409. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Friedman, Yvonne. "The City of the King of Kings: Jerusalem in the Crusader Period." In The Centrality of Jerusalem: Historical Perspectives. Edited by M. Poorhuis and C. Safrai. 190-216. Kampen: Kok Pharos, 1996.

    *Hamilton, Bernard. The Leper King and His Heirs: Baldwin IV and the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 052164187X

    $Hamilton, Bernard. The Latin Church in the Crusader States: The Secular Church. London: Variorum, 1980

    *Hardwicke, Mary Nickerson. "The Crusader States, 1192-1243." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 522-56. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Holmes, Urban Tignor. "Life among the Europeans in Palestine and Syria in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 3-35. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Holt, P. M. The Ages of the Crusades: the Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. London; New York; Longman, 1986.

    $Holt, P. M. ed. The Eastern Mediterranean Lands in the Period of the Crusades. Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1977.

    *Jacoby. D., "The Encounter of Two Societies," American Historical Review 78 (1973), 873-906. [Available online via JSTOR]

    Jacoby, D. "Conrad, Marquis of Montferrat, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1187-1192)." In Dai feudi monferrini e dal Piemonte ai nuovi mondi oltre gli Oceani. Edited by L. Balletto, 187-238. 1993

    $Kedar, Benjamin Z. "The Patriarch Eraclius." In Outremer: Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem Presented to Joshua Prawer. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar, H.E. Mayer, R.C. Smail. Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Institute, 1982.

    $Kedar, Benjamin Z., H.E. Mayer, R.C. Smail, eds. Outremer: Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem Presented to Joshua Prawer. Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Institute, 1982.

    La Monte, John L. Feudal Monarchy in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge MA: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1932; reprint, New York: Kraus, 1970.

    La Monte, John L. "John d'Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut." Byzantion 12 (1937), 417-48.

    La Monte, John L. "The Lords of Sidon." Byzantion 17 (1944-45) 183-211.

    La Monte, John L. "The Significance of the Crusaders' States in Medieval History." Byzantion 18 (1940-1941?), 300-15.

    *La Monte, John L. “The Lords of Le Puiset on the Crusades.” Speculum 17:1 (1942): 100-18. [Online via JSTOR]

    *La Monte, John L. “The Lords of Caesarea in the Period of the Crusades. “ Speculum 22:2 (1947): 145-61. [Online via JSTOR]

    La Monte, John L. "The Lords of Bethsan." Medieavali et Humanistica 6 (1950), 57-75.

    Mayer, Hans Eberhard. "On the Beginnings of the Communal Movement in the Holy Land: The Commune of Tyre." Traditio 24 (1968)

    $Mayer, Hans Eberhard. "The Beginnings of King Amalric of Jerusalem." In The Horns of Hattin. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar. London: Variorum, 1992.

    $Mayer, Hans Eberhard. Kings and Lords in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. London: Variorum Collected Studies Series CS437. London: Variorum, 1994.
    Contents: Preface; The Monarchy: Die Hofkapelle der Kvnige von Jerusalem; The succession to Baldwin II of Jersulam: English Impact on the East; The Concordat of Nablus; Angevins versus Normans: The New Men of King Fulk of Jerusalem; Guillaume de Tyr à l'école; Fontevrault und Bethanien: Kirchliches Leben in Anjou und Jerusalem im 12. Jahrhundert; Das syrische Erdbeben von 1170: Ein unedierter Brief Kvnig Amalrichs von Jerusalem; Vier jerusalemitanische Kvnigsurkunden für Pisa: echt, gefälscht oder verunechtet?; Die Legitimität Balduins IV. von Jerusalem und das Testament der Agnes von Courtenay; Henry II of England and the Holy Land; The origins of the county of Jaffa; The double county of Jaffa and Ascalon: one fief or two; John of Jaffa, his opponents and his fiefs; The origins of the lordships of Ramla and Lydda in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem; Carving up crusaders: the early Ibelins and Ramlas; Manasses of Hierges in East and West; The wheel of fortune: seignorial vicissitudes under kings Fulk and Baldwin III of Jerusalem; Die Herrschaftsbildung in Hebron.

    Munro, Dana C. The Kingdom of the Crusaders. New York; London: Appleton-Century, 1935 [Ann Arbor MI: University Microfilms, 1965]

    *Nicholson, Robert L. "The Growth of the Latin States, 1118-1144." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 410-48. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Nicholson, Robert L. Joscelyn III and the Fall of the Crusader States 1134-1199. Leiden: Brill, 1973.

    *Phillips, Jonathan. "The Latin East, 1098-1291." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 112-40. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    *Phillips, Jonathan, Defenders of the Holy Land: Relations Between the Latin East and the West, 1119-1187, Oxford: Clarendon, 1996 ISBN: 0198205406

    *Pirie-Gordon, H. "The Reign of the Princes of Galilee." English Historical Review 27 (1914), 445-61. [Available online via JSTOR]

    #Prawer, Joshua. "Colonization Activities in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem." Revue Belge de philologie et histoire 29 (1951), 1063-1118.

    *Prawer, Joshua. "The Settlement of the Latins in Jerusalem." Speculum 27 (1952), 490-563. [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Prawer, Joshua. "Social Classes in the Crusader States: the 'Minorities.'" In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. V The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. 59-116. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Prawer, Joshua. "Social Classes in the Latin Kingdom: the Franks." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. V The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. 117-92. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Prawer, Joshua. The World of the Crusaders. New York: Quadrangle Books, 1973, c1972.

    *Prawer, Joshua. The Crusaders' Kingdom: European Colonialism in the Middle Ages, New York & Washington: Praeger, 1972. [Also titled The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.]

    *Prawer, Joshua. Crusader Institutions. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, c1980.

    $Pringle, Denys. The Red Tower (al-Burj al-Ahmar): Settlement in the Plain of Sharon at the Time of the Crusaders and Mamluks A.D.1099-1516. Survey drawings by Peter Leach. London: British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, 1986.  

    *Pringle, Denys.. "The State of Research: The Archaeology of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Review of Work 1947-97." Journal of Medieval History  25:1 (1997): 389-408.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Renahan, Anne. "Crusader Castles of Lebanon" The Middle East (Dec 2000): 48. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    *Rice, Earle. Life During the Crusades. San Diego, CA : Lucent Books, c1998.
    A children's book.

    *Richard, Jean. "The Political and Ecclesiastical Organization of the Crusader States." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. V The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. 193-250. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Richard, Jean. "Agricultural Conditions in the Crusader States." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. V The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. 251-95. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Richard, Jean. The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, Vols. A & B. Translated by Janet Shirley. Vols. 11A and B of Europe in the Middle Ages: Selected Studies, gen. ed. Richard Vaughn. Amsterdam et al.: 1979.

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Feudal Nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174-1277. London: Macmillan, 1973.

    *Runciman, Steven. "The Crusader States, 1243-1291." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 557-99. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Russell, Josiah C. "The Population of the Crusader States." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. V The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. 295-315. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Savage, Henry L. "Pilgrimages and Pilgrim Shrines in Palestine and Syria after 1095." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 36-68. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Smail, R.C. "Latin Syria and the West 1149-87." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society ser. 5, 19 (1969), 1-20.

    $Smail, R. C. "The International Status of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1150-1192." In The Eastern Mediterranean Lands in the Period of the Crusades. Edited by P.M. Holt. Warminster, England, 1977.

    Stevenson, William Barron. The Crusaders in the East. A Brief History of the Wars of Islam with the Latins in Syria during the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1907. Reprint, Beirut: Librairie du Liban [1968, c1958].

    Tibble, Steven. Monarchy and Lordships in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. 

    LATIN CYPRUS

    Sources

    Anonymous. The Third Crusade. An Eye-witness Account of the Campaigns of Richard Coeur de Lion in Cyprus and the Holy Land. Edited with an introd. by Kenneth Fenwick. London: Folio Society, 1958.
    Version? of Ambroise, fl. ca. 1196. Histoire de la guerre sainte.

    $Leontios Machairas. Recital Concerning the Sweet Land of Cyprus entitled 'Chronicle.' Edited with a translation and notes by R. M. Dawkins. 2 Vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1932, reprint, New York: AMS Press, 1980

    $Philippe of Novara, 13th century. "Memoirs" from the Gestes de Chiprois trans as The Wars of Frederick II against the Ibelins in Syria and Cyprus by Philip de Novare. Translated, with notes and introduction, by John L. La Monte. With verse translation of the poems by Merton Jerome Hubert. New York: Columbia University Press, 1936.

    Secondary Literature

    $Coureas, Nicholas. Latin Church in Cyprus, 1195-1312. London: Variorum, 1997. ISBN: 1-85928-447-7 1997
    Contents Part I: The secular Latin church; The secular Latin church, the crown and the nobility; The internal organisation of the secular church; Part II: The regular Latin church; The military orders in Cyprus from 1191 to 1312; Other religious and monastic orders on Cyprus; Part III: The Latin and Orthodox churches; Relations between the Latin and Orthodox churches. Index.

    $Edbury, Peter W. The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. (reissued in paperback, 1993).

    *Edbury, Peter W. "The Latin East, 1291-1669." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 294-325. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    $Edbury, Peter W., Kingdoms of the Crusaders: From Jerusalem to Cyprus. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS653. London: Variorum, 1999.
    Contents: The Kingdom of Jerusalem: Propaganda and faction in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: the background to Hattin; William of Tyre and the patriarchical election of 1180; Feudal obligations in the Latin East; The baronial coinage of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem; Part II: Lawyers and Legal Texts: The disputed regency of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1264/6 and 1268; The Ibelin counts of Jaffa: a previously unknown passage from the "Lignages d'Outremer"; John of Ibelin's title to the County of Jaffa and Ascalon; John of Jaffa and the Kingdom of Cyprus; Law and custom in the Latin East: Les Letres dou Sepulcre; The "Livre" of Geoffrey le Tor and the "Assises" of Jerusalem; Part III: Cyprus under the Lusignan Kings: The Lusignan Kingdom of Cyprus and its Muslim neighbours; The Crusading policy of King Peter I of Cyprus; The murder of King Peter I of Cyprus (1359­1369); Cyprus and Genoa: the origins of the war of 1373­4; The aftermath of defeat: Lusignan Cyprus and the Genoese, 1374­1382; Cyprus: Town and Countryside: Famagusta in 1300; Famagusta society ca. 1300 from the registers of Lamberto di Sambuceto; The Genoese community in Famagusta around the year 1300: a historical vignette; The Franco-Cypriot landowning class and its exploitation of the agrarian resources of the island of Cyprus; The Lusignan regime in Cyprus and the indigenous population; Latin dioceses and Peristerona: a contribution to the topography of Lusignan Cyprus; Addenda et corrigenda.

    *Edbury, Peter. "The State of Research: Cyprus under the Lusignan's and Venetians. 1991-1998." Journal of Medieval History  25:1 (1999): 57-65.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Furber, Elizabeth Chapin. "The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1191-1291." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 599-629. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Hill, George. A History of Cyprus. Vol. II: the Frankish Period 1192-1432, and Vol. III: the Frankish period 1432-1571. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948. Reprint. 1972
    -Outdated in some respects but still irreplaceable.

    *Luke, Harry. "The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1291-1369." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 340-60. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Luke, Harry. "The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1369-1489." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 361-95. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    LATIN CONSTANTINOPLE AND GREECE

    Sources

    Anonymous. The Crusaders as Conquerors. The Chronicle of Morea. Translated by H.E. Lurie. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.

    Assizes of Romania: Liber consuetudinum Imperii Romaniae. Feudal institutions as revealed in the Assizes of Romania, the law code of Frankish Greece : translation of the text of the Assizes with a commentary on feudal institutions in Greece and in medieval Europe, by Peter W. Topping,  Series title: University of Pennsylvania. Dept. of History Translations and reprints from the original sources of history ; ser. 3, v. 3. c1949. Reprinted, New York : AMS Press,1980.

    *Moncada, Francisco de, 3. marques d'Aitona, 1586-1635. The Catalan chronicle of Francisco de Moncada. Translated by Frances Hernandez; edited by John M. Sharp. El Paso: Texas Western Press, University of Texas at El Paso, 1975.

    Secondary Literature

    $Arbel, Benjamin, Bernard Hamilton, David Jacoby, eds, Latins and Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean After 1204. Frank Cass, 1989 ISBN: 0714633720

    *Bartusis, Mark C. "The Kavallarioi of Byzantium." Speculum 63:2 (1988): 343-50.

    *Edbury, Peter. "The Latin East, 1291-1669." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 294-325. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    *Jacoby, David. "The Encounter of Two Societies: Western Conquerors and Byzantines in the Peloponnesus after the Fourth Crusade." American Historical Review. 78: 4 (1973): 873-906. [Online via JSTOR]

    *Gerstel, Sharon E.J. “Art and Identity in the Medieval Morea” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 263-80. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    *Jacoby, David. “Changing Economic Patterns in Latin Romania: The Impact of the West” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 197-233. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    *Lock, Peter. The Franks in the Aegean, 1204-1500. London; New York: Longman, 1995.

    *Longnon, Jean. "The Frankish States in Greece, 1204-1311." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 235-76. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Lowe, Alfonso. The Catalan Vengeance. London; Boston: Routledge and K. Paul, 1972.

    $Luttrell, Anthony. Latin Greece, the Hospitallers, and the Crusades, 1291-1440. London: Variorum, 1982.

    Miller, W. The Latins in the Levant. A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1556), London: J. Murray; New York: Dutton, 1908. Reprint, Cambridge [Eng.]: Speculum Historiale [1964].

    #Miller, W. Essays on the Latin Orient. London: Cambridge University Press, 1921. Reprinted, Chicago: Argonaut, 1967.

    *Setton, Kenneth M. "The Catalans in Greece, 1311-1380." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 167-224. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Setton, Kenneth M. "The Catalans and Florentines in Greece, 1380-1462." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 225-77. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Arbel, Benjamin, Bernard Hamilton and David Jacoby, eds. Latins & Greeks in the East Mediteranean [Special issues of Mediterranean Historical Review 4:1]. Ilford, England: Frank Cass, 1989
    Jacoby, David. "From Byzantium to Latin Romania: Continuity and Change."
    Richard, Jean. "The Establishment of the Latin Church in the Empire of Constantinople (1204-27)."
    Angold, Michael. "Greeks and Latins after 1204: The Perspective of Exile"
    Magdalino, Paul. "Between Romaniae: Thessaly and Epirus in the Later Middle Ages."
    Barber, Malcolm. "Western Attitudes to Frankish Greece in the Thirteenth Century"
    Lock, Peter. "The Medieval Towers of Greece: A Problem in Chronology and Function."
    Luttrell, Anthony T. "The Latins and Life on the Smaller Aegean Islands: 1204-1453."
    Balard, Michael. "The Genoese in the Aegean (1204-1566)."
    Arbel, Benjamin. "The Cypriot Nobility from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century: A New Interpretation."
    Morgan, David O. "The Mongols and the Eastern Mediterranean."
    Zachariodou, Elizabeth A. "Holy War in the Aegean during the Fourteenth Century"
    Irwin, Robert. "The Image of the Byzantine and the Frank in Arab Popular Literature of the Late Middle Ages."

    $Setton, Kenneth Meyer. Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571. 4 vols. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1976-1984. ISBN: 0871691272

    *Topping, Peter. "The Morea, 1311-1364." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 104-40. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Topping, Peter. "The Morea, 1364-1460." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 141-66. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Topping, Peter. Studies on Latin Greece A.D. 1205-1715. London: Variorum, 1977.

    *#Wolf, Robert Lee. "The Latin Empire of Constantinople, 1204-l261." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 187-234. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    CRUSADERS AND ISLAM

    Sources

    $Abu al-Fida' Isma'il ibn 'Ali, 1273-1331. The Memoirs of a Syrian prince : Abu'l-Fida', Sultan of Hamah (672-732/1273-1331). Translated with an introduction by P.M. Holt. Wiesbaden : Steiner, 1983.

    *Al-Makrisi. Arab Account of the Crusade of St. Louis in Essulouk li Mariset il Muluk [The Road to Knowledge of the Return of Kings], translated in Chronicles of the Crusades. Edited by H.G.B. 535-556. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1848: reissued New York: AMS Press, 1969
    Online at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/makrisi.html

    *Dajani-Shakeel, Hadia. "Some Medieval Accounts of Salah al-Din's Recovery of Jerusalem (Al-Quds)" in Hisham Nashabe (ed) Studia Palaestina: Studies in honour of Constantine K. Zurayk, Institute for Palestine Studies, Beirut 1988.

    *Gabrieli Francesco. Arab Historians of the Crusades. Translated by E. J. Costello. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969. ISBN: 0520052242

    $Gibb, Hamilton A.R. The Life of Saladin: From the Works of Imad ad-Din and Baha ad-Din. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.

    *Ibn Batuta, 1304-1377. Travels, A.D. 1325-1354. Translated with revisions and notes from the Arabic text edited by C. Defremery and B. R. Sanguinetti, by H. A. R. Gibb. Cambridge, Eng.: Published for the Hakluyt Society at Cambridge University Press, 1958-.

    Ibn Jubayr, Muhammad ibn Ahmad, 1145-1217. The Travels of Ibn Jubayr / edited from a MS. in the University Library of Leyden by William Wright. 2d ed. rev. by M.J. de Goeje. Leiden: A.J. Brill, 1907.

    $Ibn Jubayr, Muhammad ibn Ahmad, 1145-1217. The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, being the chronicle of a Mediaeval Spanish Moor concerning his journey to the Egypt of Saladin, the holy cities of Arabia, Baghdad the City of the Caliphs, the Latin Kingdom of... Translated by R.J.C. Broadhurst. London: J. Cape, 1952.

    *Ibn Kalanisi [Ibn al-Qalanisi]. The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades. Translated by H.A.R. Gibbs. London: Luzac, 1932; reprint, New York: AMS Press, 1982. ISBN: 0404170196

    $Ibn Shaddad, Baha' al-Din Yusuf ibn Rafi', 1145-1234. The Life of Saladin. By Beha ed-Din (1137-1193 A.D.). Translated by C.W. Wilson, Library of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society; v. 13. London: 1897.

    Ibn Shaddad, Baha' al-Din Yusuf ibn Rafi', 1145-1234. The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin. Edited by D.S. Richards..Crusade Texts in Translation 7. Brookfield VT: Ashgate, 2001
    [A translation of Baha' al-Din Ibn Shaddad's account of the life and career of Saladin.]

    *Peters, Rudolph, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam: A Reader (Princeton Series on the Middle East). Princeton: Markus Wiener, 1996. ISBN: 155876108X
    The translations include hadiths (sayings and deeds of the Prophet Mohammed), excerpts from al-Muwatta' of Malik Ibn Anas (d. 796) exhorting Muslims to participate in Jihad, the legal doctrine of Jihad as expounded by the famous philosopher and jurist Averroes (d. 1198), and a treatment of its religious and moral aspects by Ibn Tamiyya (d. 1328). A treatise on Jihad by the late rector of the famous al-Azhar University in Cairo, Mahmud Shaltut (d. 1963), rounds out the collection.

    Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awsi al-Ansari. fl. 1400. A Muslim Manual of War. being Tafrij al-karub fi tadbir al-hurub. Edited and translated by George T. Scanlon. Cairo: American University at Cairo Press [1961].

    $Usamah ibn Munqidh, 1095-1188. Memoirs of an Arab-Syrian gentleman; or, An Arab knight in the Crusades: memoirs of Usamah ibn-Munqidh (Kitab al-itibar). Translated from the unique manuscript by Philip K. Hitti. New York: Columbia University Press, 1929; reissued, Beirut, Khayats, 1964; reissued, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

    *Usamah ibn Munqidh, 1095-1188. An Arab-Syrian gentleman and warrior in the period of the Crusades : memoirs of Usamah ibn-Munqidh (Kitab al- I`tibar) ; translated from the original manuscript by Philip K. Hitti ; with a new foreword by Richard W. Bulliet. New York : Columbia University Press, 2000.

    $Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan Al-Buti, Jihad in Islam: How to Understand and Practise It Dar Al-Fikr, 1996; ISBN: 1575472228
    [By the current chair of the department of theology at the University of Damascus.]

    Secondary Literature

    General

    Dajini-Shakeel, Hadia. "Al-Quds: Jerusalem in the Consciousness of the Counter-Crusader." In The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange between East and West during the Period of the Crusades. Edited by Vladimir P. Goss and Christine Verzar Bornstein. 201-21. Kalamazoo MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1986.
    -Examines roots of the importance of Jerusalem in early Islamic literature, and the "idyllic image of the Jerusalem [that] emerged in the twelfth century as a result of a long and well-orchestrated ideological campaign in response to the loss of Palestine to the Crusaders.

    Gabrieli, Francesco. "The Arabic Historiography of the Crusades." In Historians of the Middle East. Edited by Bernard Lewis and P.M. Holt. 98-107. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.

    Gibb, Hamilton A.R. "Notes on the Arabic Materials for the History of the Early Crusades." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 7 (1933-35), 739-54.

    Goitein, S. D. F. Studies in Islamic History and Institutions. Leiden: Brill, reprint, 1997, ISBN: 9004030069

    *Hillenbrand, Carole. The Crusades : Islamic Perspectives. New York : Routledge, 2000.

    *Holt, P. M. (Peter Malcolm), Ann K. S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds. The Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977, c1970.

    Holt, P.M. "The Virtuous Ruler in Thirteenth-century Mamluk Royal Biographies." Nottingham Medieval Studies (1980)

    *Holt, P. M. (Peter Malcolm). The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. London; New York: Longman, 1986.

    *Irwin, Robert. "Islam and the Crusades, 1096-1699." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 217-59. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    *Laiou, Angeliki E. and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh, eds. The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001. [entire text online]

    $Richards, D.S. "'Imad al-Din al-Isfahani: Administrator, Littérateur and Historian." In Crusaders and Muslims, ed. Maya Shatzmiller. Leiden: Brill, 1993.

    *Rosenthal, Franz. A History of Muslim Historiography. 2d rev. ed. Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1968.

    *Lewis, Bernard. The Assassins: A Radical Sect in Islam. New York: Basic Books, 1968.

    *Lewis, Bernard. "The Isma'ilites and the Assassins." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 99-134. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Maalouf, Amin. The Crusades through Arab Eyes. Translated by Jon Rothschild. New York : Schocken Books, 1985.

    *Mottahedeh, Roy Parviz and Ridwan al-Sayyid. “The Idea of the Jihad in Islam before the Crusades” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 23-29. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    *Munro, Dana Carleton. “The Western Attitude toward Islam during the Period of the Crusades.”  Speculum 6:3. (1931): 329-43. [Online via JSTOR]

    $Prawer, Joshua, and Haggai Ben-Shammai, eds. The History of Jerusalem: The Early Muslim Period 638-1099, New York: New York University Press, 1996 ISBN: 0814766390

    *Watt, W. Montgomery. "Islamic Conceptions of the Holy War." In The Holy War. Edited by Thomas Patrick Murphy. 141-56. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1976.

    Political/Military Response to Crusades

    *Cahen, Claude. "The Turkish Invasion: The Selchükids." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 135-76. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Cahen, Claude. "The Turks in Iran and Anatolia before the Mongol Invasions." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 661-92. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Ehrenkreutz, Andrew S. "The Place of Saladin in the Naval History of the Mediterranean Sea in the Middle Ages." Journal of the American Oriental Society 75 (1955)

    *Ehrenkreutz, Andrew S. Saladin. 1st ed.; Albany, State University of New York Press, 1972.
    Reviewed by H.E. Mayer in Speculum (1974), 724ff. [Available online via JSTOR]

    Gibb, Hamilton A.R. "The Achievement of Saladin," Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 35 (1952), 44-60.

    *Gibb, Hamilton A. R. "The Caliphate and the Arab States." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 81-99. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Gibb, Hamilton A. R. "Zengi and the Fall of Edessa." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 449-63. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Gibb, Hamilton A. R. "The Career of Nur-ad-Din." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 513-27. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Gibb, Hamilton A. R. "The Rise of Saladin, 1169-1189." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 563-89. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Gibb, Hamilton A. R.. "The Aiyubids." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 693-714. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Hamblin, W.J. "Saladin and Muslim Military Theory." In The Horns of Hattin. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar. London: Variorum, 1992.

    *Hindley, Geoffrey. Saladin. London: Constable, 1976.

    *Humphreys, R.S. From Saladin to the Mongols: the Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1977.

    Irwin, Robert. The Middle East in the Middle Ages: The Early Mamluk Sultanate 1250-1382. London and Sydney: 1986.

    Little, Donald. History and Historiography of the Mamlu-ks. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS240. London: Variorum, 1986. ISBN: 0-86078-188-7
    Contents: Preface; Al-SafadÈ- as biographer; The recovery of a lost source for BahrÈ- Mamlu-k history; An analysis of the relationship between four Mamlu-k chronicles for 737-45; The history of Arabia in the Bahri Mamlu-k period; The founding of Sulta-niyya; Notes on Aitamis"; The historical and historiographical significance of the detention of Ibn Taymiyya; Did Ibn Taymiyya have a screw loose?; Coptic conversion to Islam under the Mamlu-ks; Religion under the Mamlu-ks; The significance of the Haram documents; The Haram documents as sources for the arts; Six 14th-century purchase deeds for slaves; Two 14th-century court records concerning the disposal of slaves by minors; Relations between Jerusalem and Egypt; Index.

    $Lyons, Malcolm and D. E. P. Jackson. Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

    Newby, Percy H. Saladin in His Time. London; Boston: Faber and Faber, 1983.

    Regan, Geoffrey. Saladin and the Fall of Jerusalem. London; New York: Croom Helm, 1987.

    *Roberts, J. Howard. "Respect by his Crusader Opponents, Saladin had a More Controversial Image among his Fellow Muslims." Military History 16 (Dec 1997): 24-. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    Pipes, Daniel. Slave Soldiers and Islam: The Genesis of a Military System. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

    $Thorau, P. The Lion of Egypt: Sultan Baybars I and the Near East in the Thirteenth Century. Translated by P. M. Holt. London and New York: 1987

    *Ziada, Mustafa M. "The Mamluk Sultans to 1293." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 735-58. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Ziada, Mustafa M. "The Mamluk Sultans, 1291-1517." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 486-512. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Intercultural Relations

    Abu-Lughod, Ibrahim A. Arab Rediscovery of Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

    *Barber, Malcolm. :How the West Saw Medieval Islam." History Today, May 1, 1997.

    *Lyons, M.C. “The Land of War: Europe in the Arab Hero Cycles.” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 41-51. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001]

    *Baker, Derek. Relations Between East and West in the Middle Ages. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1973.

    *Barber, Malcolm. "How the West Saw Medieval Islam." History Today 47:5 (May 1997): 44-50. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    *Burns, Robert I. "Christian-Islamic Confrontation in the West: The Thirteenth-Century Dream of Conversion." The American Historical Review 76:5 (1971): 1386-1434. [Online via JSTOR]

    $Blanks, David R. and Michael Frassetto. Western Views of Islam in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Perception of Other. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

    *Daniel, Norman. Islam and the West: The Making of an Image. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1962.

    *Daniel, Norman. The Arabs and Mediaeval Europe. London : Longman, 1975.

    *El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria. “Byzantium through the Islamic Prism from the Twelfth to the Thirteenth Century.” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 53-69. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001. 

    *Faris, Nabih Amin. "Arab Culture in the Twelfth Century." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. V The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. 3-32. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Fregosi, Paul, Jihad in the West: Muslim Conquests from the 7th to the 21st Centuries, New York: Prometheus Books, 1998 ISBN: 1573922471
    [A respectable non-ccademic press, but a book that is deeply hostile to Islam.]

    *Gibb, Hamilton A.R. and Harold Bowen. Islamic Society and the West: A Study of the Impact of Western Civilization on Moslem culture in the Near East. London; New York: Oxford University Press, 1950-.

    *Grabar, Oleg. “The Crusades and the Development of Islamic Art” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 235-45. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    *Hitti, Philip Khuri. "The Impact of the Crusades on Moslem Lands." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. V The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. 33-58. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Irwin, Robert, "The Image of the Byzantine and the Frank in Arab Popular Literature of the Late Middle Ages," Mediterranean Historical Review 4 (1989)

    *Irwin, Robert. "Muslim Responses to the Crusades." History Today 47:4 (April 1997): 43-49. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    Johnson, James Turner, The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions, College Park PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997 ISBN: 0271016329

    *Jones, C. Meredith. "The Conventional Saracen of the Songs of Geste." Speculum 17:2 (1942): 201-25. [Online via JSTOR]

    *Kedar, Benjamin. Z. Crusade and Mission: European Approaches toward the Muslims. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

    *Lewis, Bernard. The Muslim Discovery of Europe, New York: W.W. Norton, 1982.

    *Lewis, Bernard. Islam and the West. New York : Oxford University Press, 1993.

    *Lewis, Bernard. Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    *Maalouf, Amin. The Crusades through Arab Eyes. Translated by Jon Rothschild. London: Al Saqi Books: Distributed by Zed Books, 1984.
    -Widely read, but not considered reliable. Stick to Gabrieli, whose work provides the basis for Maalouf's.

    $Powell, James, ed. Muslims under Latin Rule, 1100-1300. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.

    Riley-Smith, Jonathan, "The Survival in Latin Palestine of Muslim Administration," in The Eastern Mediterranean Lands in the Period of the Crusades, ed. P.M. Holt, 9-23. Warminster, England: 1977.

    $Shatzmiller, Maya, ed. Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-Century Syria, Leiden: Brill, 1993. ISBN: 9004097775

    *Southern, Richard W. Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1978. ISBN: 0674950550

    $Tolan, John Victor, ed. Medieval Christian Perceptions of Islam: A Book of Essays. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, vol. 1768. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-815-31426-4.

    Tolan, John Victor. "Anti-Hagiography: Embrico of Mainz's Vita Mahumeti." Journal of Medieval History 22 (1996), 25-41.

    $Tolan, John Victor. "Muslims as Pagan Idolators in Chronicles of the First Crusade." In Western Attitudes towards Islam. Edited by Michael Frassetto et David Blanks. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.

    Tolan, John Victor. "Rhetoric, Polemics, and the Art of Hostile Biography: Portraying Muammad in Thirteenth-Century Christian Spain." In Pensamiento hispano medieval: homenaje a Horacio Santiago Otero. Edited by José María Soto Rábanos. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. 1998.

    Tolan, John Victor. "Peter the Venerable on the 'Diabolical Heresy of the Saracens.'" In The Devil, Heresy, and Witchcraft in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of Jeffrey B. Russell. Edited by Alberto Ferreiro. 345-67. Leiden:Brill, 1998.

    Tolan, John Victor. "Mirror of Chivalry: alâ al-Dîn in the Medieval European Imagination," Images of the Other: Europe and the Muslim World before 1700. Cairo Papers on Social Science 19 (1996), 7-38.

    Wolf, Kenneth B. "The Earliest Latin Lives of Muhammad."   In Conversion and Continuity: Indigenous Christian Comunities in Islamic Lands, Eighth to Eighteenth Centuries. Edited by Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi. 89-101. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1990

    $Ye'or, Bat. The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam. Translated from the French by David Maisel (author's text), Paul Fenton (document section), and David Littman. Rev. and enl. English ed. Rutherford NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London : Associated University Presses, 1985.
    A book that arouses passions in some quarters, but one that must be taken into account.

    $Ye'or, Bat, The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude : Seventh-Twelfth Century, trans Miriam Kochan and David Littman (Translator) Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996 ISBN: 0838636780
    [Criticized as "informed, but hostile to Islam".]

    Mongol Impact

    *Cahen, Claude. "The Mongols and the Near East." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 715-34. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Chambers, James. The Devil's Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe. London: Cassell, 1988.

    *Sinor, Denis. "The Mongols and Western Europe." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 513-44. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    CRUSADERS AND JEWS

    Sources

    *The Jews and the Crusaders: the Hebrew chronicles of the First and Second Crusades. Translated and edited by Shlomo Eidelberg. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977.
    Contains: Chronicle of Solomon bar Simeon (Mainz, Worms in 1096), Chronicle of R. Eliezar bar Nathan (Cologne 1096), Narrative of the Old Persecutions or Mainz Anonymous (Mainz 1096), Sefer Zekhirah (Book of Remembrance) of R. Ephraim of Bonn (2nd Crusade)

    *Goitein, S. D. A Mediterranean Society; the Jewish Communities of the Arab world as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967-<c1993 >.

    Grayzel, Solomon. The Church and the Jews in the XIIIth century. Edited and arranged, with additional notes by Kenneth R. Stow. New York: Jewish Theological Seminary in America; Detroit : Wayne State University Press, <c1989- >.

    *Marcus, Jacob Rader. The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book, 315-1791. New York : Atheneum, 1983, c1938.

    Morrison, Karl Frederick. Conversion and Text: The Cases of Augustine of Hippo, Herman-Judah, and Constantine Tsatsos.  Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992.

    Secondary Literature

    Assis, Y.-T., J. Cohen, O. Limor, and M. Toch. eds. Facing the Cross: The Persecution of Ashkenazic Jews in 1096. Yearbook of the Dinur Centre for Jewish History. Jerusalem: 1998.

    *Baron, Salo Wittmayer. A Social and Religious History of the Jews. 18 vols. 2d ed., rev. and enl. New York: Columbia University Press, 1952-<1983

    *Chazan, Robert. Medieval Jewry in Northern France: A Political and Social History. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.

    Chazan, Robert. "The Hebrew First-Crusade Chronicles," Revue des etudes juives, CXXXII (1974): 235-54.

    Chazan, Robert. "The Emperor Frederick I, the Third Crusade and the Jews." Viator 8 (1977): 83-93.

    $Chazan, Robert. European Jewry and the First Crusade. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1987.

    $Chazan, Robert. Barcelona and Beyond: The Disputation of 1263 and its Aftermath. Berkeley University of California Press, c1992.

    *Chazan, Robert, Medieval Stereotypes and Modern Antisemitism. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997 ISBN 0-520-20394-1.

    *Chazan, Robert, In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews. New York: Jewish Publication Society, 1997.

    -- See Robert Chazan Homepage http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/hebrew/skirball/chazan/ for a full list Professor Chazan's articles on medieval Jews and medieval Antisemitism.

    Cohen, Jeremy, ed. Essential Papers on Judaism and Christianity in Conflict: From Late Antiquity to the Reformation. New York: New York University Press, c1991.

    Cohen, Mark R. Under Crescent & Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

    *Cutler, Allan Harris and Helen Elmquist Cutler. The Jew as Ally of the Muslim: Medieval Roots of Aanti-Semitism. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1986.

    Dobson, R. B. (Richard Barrie). The Jews of Medieval York and the Massacre of March 1190. York: St. Anthony's Press, 1974.

    *Goldin, Simha. "The Socialisation for Kiddush ha-Shem among Medieval Jews," Journal of Medieval History 23:2 (1997): 117-38. [Online at Elsevier Science Journals]

    Goodich, Michael, Sophia Menache, and Sylvia Schein, eds. Cross Cultural Convergences in the Crusader Period: Essays Presented to Aryeh Grabois on his Sixty-Fifth Birthday. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.
    [Note especialy various articles on Jewish and Christian interaction.]

    *Grabois, Aryeh. "The Hebraica Veritas and Jewish-Christian Intellectual Relations in the Twelfth Century." Speculum 50 (1975). [Available online via JSTOR]

    Graetz, Heinrich. History of the Jews. 6 vols. Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1891-98. Reissued 1956.
    Vol III on the Medieval Period. Somewhat dated.

    Alfred Haverkamp, ed. Juden und Christen zur Zeit der Kreuzzuege. Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke Verlag. 1999.
    Collected papers - 5 of the 12 are in English.

    $Hood, John Y. B. Aquinas and the Jews. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, c1995.

    *Johnson, Willis. "The Myth of Male Jewish Menses." Journal of Medieval History 24 (1998): 273-95. [Online via ElsevierScience Journals]

    $Jordan, William C. The French Monarchy and the Jews: from Philip Augustus to the Last Capetians. Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, c1989.

    Grossman, Avraham. "The Cultural and Social Background of Jewish Martyrdom in Germany in 1096." In Juden und Christen zur Zeit der Kreuzzüge. Edited by Alfred Haverkamp. Vorträge und Forschungen der Konstanzer Arbeitskreis für mittelalterliche Geschichte, Bd. 47. Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 1999

    Katz, Jacob. Exclusiveness and Tolerance: Studies in Jewish-Gentile Relations in Medieval and Modern Times. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.

    Langmuir, Gavin I. "Anti-Judaism and Anti-Semitism," Viator 2 (1971)

    *Langmuir, Gavin I. History, Religion, and Antisemitism. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1990.

    $#Langmuir, Gavin I. Toward a Definition of Antisemitism. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1990.

    *Nirenberg, David, Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996 . ISBN 0-691-03375-7.

    *Moore, R. I. (Robert Ian). The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950-1250. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990, c1987.

    $#Parkes, James William. The Conflict of the Church and the Synagogue: A Study of the Origins of Antisemitism. London: Soncino, 1934. repr. New York: Hermon Press, 1974.

    $Parkes, James William. The Jew in the Medieval Community, a Study of his Political and Economic Situation. London: The Soncino press, 1938. 2d ed. with a new introd. New York : Hermon Press, c1976.

    *Poliakov, Leon. The History of Anti-Semitism. Translated from the French by Richard Howard. 4 Vols. New York, Vanguard Press [1965]-c1985.

    $Prawer, Joshua. The History of the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, Oxford, Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.  ISBN: 0198225571

    #Resnick, Irven M. "Medieval Roots of the Myth of Jewish Male Menses." Harvard Theological Review 93:2 (2000): 241-63

    *Sicherman, Harvey, and Gilad J. Gevaryahu. "Rashi and the First Crusade: Commentary, Liturgy, Legend." Judaism 48:2 (1999): 181-97. [Online at WilsonSelect] 

    Stow, Kenneth. Alienated Minority: The Jews of Medieval Latin Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,1992.

    Szarmach, Paul, ed. Aspects of Jewish Culture in the Middle Ages. Albany NY: SUNY Press, 1979.

    $Trachtenberg, Josuha, The Devil and the Jews : The Medieval Concept of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Antisemitism New York: Jewish Publication Society, 1989 ISBN: 0827602278

    *Videorecording. The Disputation: A Theological Debate between Christians and Jews. A presentation of Films for the Humanities & Sciences; an Electric Rainbow production for Channel 4 ; written by Hyam Maccoby ; producer, Jenny Reeks ; director, Geoffrey Sax. Princeton, N.J. : Films for the Humanities & Sciences, c1991.
    Description: 1 videocassette (64 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.
    MEDIA COLL-1ST BM535 .D525 1991

    CRUSADERS AND BYZANTIUM

    Sources

    $Anna Comnena. The Alexiad. Translated by E.R.A. Sewter. Baltimore: Penguin Books 1969.

    Anna Comnena. The Alexiad of Anna Comnena. Translated by Elizabeth A.S. Dawes. London, 1928

    *Doukas, fl. 1455. Decline and Fall of Byzantium to the Ottoman Turks. an annotated Translation of "Historia Turco-Byzantina" by Harry J. Magoulias. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1975. 

    $John Kinnamos, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, trans. Charles Brand, New York: Columbia University Press, 1976

    $Manuel II Palaeologus, Emperor of the East, 1350-1425. The letters of Manuel II Palaeologus: text, translation, and notes. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Trustees for Harvard University; Locust Valley, N.Y.: distributed by J. J. Augustin, 1977. 

    *Nicetas Choniates, ca. 1140-1213. O City of Byzantium: Annals of Niketas Choniates. Translated by Harry I. Magoulias. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984.

    *Phrantzes, Georgios, b. 1401. Chronikon Georgiou Phrantze. English. as The Fall of the Byzantine Empire: A Chronicle by George Sphrantzes, 1401-1477. Ttranslated by Marios Philippides. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980.

    Secondary Literature

    *Ahrweiler, Hélène and Angeliki E. Laiou, eds. Studies on the Internal Diaspora of the Byzantine Empire. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection; Cambridge, MA: distributed by Harvard University Press, 1998.

    *Angold, Michael. The Byzantine Empire 1025-1204: A Political History. 2d ed. London; New York: Addison-Wesley, 1997.
    -The second edition must be used.

    $Angold, Michael. Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081-1261, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

    *Bartusis, Mark C. "The Kavallarioi of Byzantium." Speculum 63:2 (1988): 343-50. [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Brand, Charles M. "The Byzantines and Saladin, 1185-1192: Opponents of the Third Crusade." Speculum 37 (1962): 167-81 [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Brand, Charles M. Byzantium Confronts the West 1180-1204. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968.

    *Bouras, Charalambos. “The Impact of Frankish Architecture on Thirteenth-Century Byzantine Architecture” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 247-62. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    $Brundage, James A. "Richard the Lion Heart and Byzantium." In James A. Brundage., The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law. Collected Studies Series, Cs 338. London: Variorum, 1991. ISBN: 0860782913

    *Laiou, Angeliki E. and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh, eds. The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001. [entire text online]

    Oikonomides, Nicholas. "The Concept of 'Holy War' and Two Tenth-Century Byzantine Ivories."" 62-85.  In  Peace and War in Byzantium: Essays in Honor of George T. Dennis, S.J.  Edited by Timothy S. Miller and John Nesbitt. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1995.

    *Cheetham, Nicolas. Mediaeval Greece. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

    Ciggaar, Krijnie Nelly, Western Travellers to Constantinople: The West and Byzantium, 962-1204, Cultural and Political Relations. New York: E.J. Brill, 1996. ISBN 9-004-10637-5 .

    #Charanis, Peter. "Byzantium, the West and the Origin of the First Crusade." Byzantion 19 (1949), 17-36.

    *Charanis, Peter. "The Byzantine Empire in the Eleventh Century." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 177-219. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Daly, W.M. "Christian Fraternity, the Crusaders and the Security of Constantinople, 1097-1204: the Precarious Survival of an Ideal." Medieval Studies 22 (1960)

    *Dennis, George T. “Defenders of the Christian People:Holy War in Byzantium.” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 31-39. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001. [entire text online]

    *Geanakoplos, Deno John. Greek Scholars in Venice: Studies in the Dissemination of Greek Learning from Byzantium to Western Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962.

    *Geanakoplos, Deno John. Byzantine East and Latin West: Two Worlds of Christendom in Middle Ages and Renaissance: Studies in Ecclesiastical and Cultural History. Oxford, Blackwell, 1966.

    *Geanakoplos, Deno. "Byzantium and the Crusades, 1261-1354." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 27-68. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Geanakoplos, Deno. "Byzantium and the Crusades, 1354-1453." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 69-103. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Geanakoplos, Deno John. Interaction of the "Sibling" Byzantine and Western Cultures in the Middle Ages and Italian Renaissance (330- 1600). New Haven : Yale University Press, 1976.

    *Geanakoplos, Deno John. Constantinople and the West: Essays on the Late Byzantine

    (Palaeologan) and Italian Renaissances and the Byzantine and Roman Churches. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

    $Hamilton, Bernard. "Manuel I Comnenus and Baldwin IV of Jerusalem." In Kathegetria: Essays Presented to Joan Hussey for her 80th Birthday. Edited by J. Chrysostimides. Camberley: Porphyrogenitus, 1988.

    Howard-Johnson, James D., ed., Byzantium and the West, c.850-c.1200: Proceedings of the XVIII Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Oxford 30th March-1st April 1984. Amsterdam: A.M. Hakkert, 1988.

    Howard-Johnston, James. "Anna Komnene and the Alexiad." In Alexios I Komnenos. Edited by M. E. Mullett et D. C. Smythe, 260-302.  Belfast: Belfast Byzantine Texts and Translations, 1996.

    *Jeffreys, Elizabeth, and Michael Jeffreys. “The "Wild Beast from the West ":Immediate Literary Reactions in Byzantium to the Second Crusade” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 101-16. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    *Kazhdan, Alexander. “Latins and Franks in Byzantium: Perception and Reality from the Eleventh to the Twelfth Century” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 83-100. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    *Kolbaba, Tia M. “Byzantine Perceptions of Latin Religious "Errors ":Themes and Changes from 850 to 1350” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 117-43. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    #Kolbaba, Tia. "'Fighting for Christianity: Holy War in the Byzantine Empire."  Byzantion  68 (1998), 194-221.

    *Laiou, Angeliki E. (with an Appendix by Cécile Morrisson). “Byzantine Trade with Christians and Muslims and the Crusades” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 157-96. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    *Leyser, K. "The Tenth Century in Byzantine-Western Relationships." In Relations between East and West in the Middle Ages. Edited by Derek Baker. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1973.

    Loud, Graham A. "Anna Komnena and her sources for the Normans of Southern Italy." In Church and Chronicle in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to John Taylor. Edited by Ian Wood et Graham A. Loud, 41-57. London: Hambledon, 1991.

    *Nicol, Donald M. "The Byzantine View of Western Europe." In Byzantium: Its Ecclesiastical History and Relations with the Western World. London, Variorum Reprints, 1972. (1972)

    *Hussey, Joan M. "Byzantium and the Crusades, 1081-1204." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 123-54. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Hussey, Joan, M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, London: Oxford University Press, 1990.
    Useful summary of the major issues and conclusions as of 1990.

    *Laiou, Angeliki E. Constantinople and the Latins; the Foreign Policy of Andronicus II, 1282-1328. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972.

    La Monte, J.L. "To What Extent was the Byzantine Emperor the Suzerain of the Crusading States?" Byzantion 7 (1932)

    *Magdalino, Paul. The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

    #Mayne, R. "East and West in 1054." Cambridge Historical Journal 11 (1953-55), 133-48.

    $Nicol, Donald M. "The Crusades and the Unity of Christendom." In The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange between East and West during the Period of the Crusades. Edited by Vladimir P. Goss and Christine Verzar Bornstein. 169-80. Kalamazoo, Mich.: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1986.

    *Nicol, Donald M. Byzantium and Venice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992 ISBN: 0521428947

    *Nicol, Donald M. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN: 0521439914

    *Nicol, Donald M. Byzantium: Its Ecclesiastical History and Relations with the Western World - collected studies. Variorum

    *Nicol, Donald M. Church and Society in the Last Centuries of Byzantium. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1978

    *Laiou, Angeliki. "Marino Sanudo Torsello, Byzantium and the Turks: The Background to the Anti-Turkish League of 1332-1334." Speculum 45:3 (1970): 374-92. [Online via JSTOR]

    $Lilie, Ralph-Johannes, Byzantium and the Crusader States, 1096-1204: Studies in the Relations of the Byzantine Empire With the Crusader States in Syria and Palestine. Translated by J. C. Morris and J. E. Ridings. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994 ISBN: 0198204078

    *Runciman, Steven. The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and His Reign: A Study of Tenth-Century Byzantium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1929. ISBN: 0521357225

    *Runciman, Steven. The Eastern Schism: A Study of the Papacy and the Eastern Churches During the XIIth and XIIIth Centuries Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1955. Repr. AMS Press; ISBN: 0404162479

    *Runciman, Steven. The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later Thirteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958. ISBN: 0521437741
    -The intrigues of Michael VIII Paleologus, Charles of Anjou, and the origin of the mafia!

    *Runciman, Steven. The Fall of Constantinople, 1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965. ISBN: 0521398320

    *Runciman, Steven. Mistra: Byzantine Capital of the Peloponnese. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980.

    Schlosser, F. E., "Byzantine Studies and the History of the Crusade: The Alexiad of Anna Comnena as Source for the Crusades." Byzantinische Forschungen 15 (1990):. 397-406.

    Shepard, J. "When Greek meets Greek: Alexius Comnenus and Bohemond in 1097-98.", Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 12 (1988)

    *Thomson Robert W. “The Crusaders through Armenian Eyes. ” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 71-82. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    Thomas, R. D. "Anna Comnena's Account of the First Crusade: History and Politics in the Reigns of the Emperors Alexius I and Manuel I Comnenus ." Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 15 (1991): 269-312.

    Tuilier, Andre, "Byzance et la feodalite occidentale: les vertus guerrieres des premiers croises d'apres l'Alexiade d'Anne Comnene." 
    in  La guerre et la paix au Moyen Age.  35-50. Paris: Bibliotheque nationale, 1978, 

    Vryonis, Speros. Byzantium and Europe. 1st American ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1967.

    THE SPANISH RECONQUISTA

    Sources

    *Constable, Olivia Remie, ed. Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997 ISBN: 0812215699

    *Lipskey, Glenn Edward. The Chronicle of Alfonso the Emperor: A Translation of the Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris, with study and notes Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 1972.
    Online at http://libro.uca.edu/lipskey/chronicle.htm

    $Melville, C.P, Colin Smith, Ahmad Ubaydli, eds, Christians and Moors in Spain : Texts of the Reconquest, 1100-1614 (Hispanic Classics). Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1977., 1990 ISBN: 0856684473

    $Osbernus [?]. De expugnatione Lyxbonensi. The conquest of Lisbon. Edited from the unique manuscript in Corpus Cristi College, Cambridge, with a translation into English by Charles Wendell David. New York : Columbia UniversityPress, 1936.

    Secondary Literature

    Interaction of Three Communities

    *Ashtor, Eliyahu. The Jews of Moslem Spain. Translated from the Hebrew by Aaron Klein and Jenny Machlowitz Klein. Philadelphia: JewishPublication Society of America, c1973-1984.

    *Baer, Yitzhak. A History of the Jews in Christian Spain: From the Age of Reconquest to the Fourteenth Century, translated by Louis Schoffman. New York: Jewish Publication Society, 1993. ISBN: 0827604254

    *Boswell, John. The Royal Treasure: Muslim Communities under the Crown of Aragon in the Fourteenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
    Online at http://libro.uca.edu/boswell/rt.htm

    *Burns, Robert. "How to End a Crusade: Techniques for Making Peace in the Thirteenth-Century Kingdom of Valencia." Military Affairs  35:4. (1971):142-148. [Online via JSTOR]

    Burns, Robert Ignatius, S.J. Jews in the Notarial Culture: Latinate Wills in Mediterranean Spain, 1250-1350. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
    Online at http://www-ucpress.berkeley.edu:3030/dynaweb/public/books/history/burns/@Generic__BookView

    *Chejne, Anwar G. Muslim Spain, its History and Culture. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1974.

    *Glick, Thomas F. Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.
    Online at http://libro.uca.edu/ics/emspain.htm

    $Glick Thomas F. From Muslim Fortress to Christian Castle: Social and Cultural Change in Medieval Spain. Manchester; Manchester University Press, 1995. [Distributed in the US by New York: St. Martins Press.]

    *Kennedy, Hugh. Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus. London; New York: Longman, 1996.

    $Lourie, Elena. "A Society Organized for War: Medieval Spain." Past and Present 35 (December, 1966), 54-76.

    $Lourie, Elena. Crusade and Colonization: Muslims, Christians and Jews under the Crown of Aragon. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS317. London: Variorum, 1990. ISBN: 0-86078-266-2
    Contents: Preface; A society organized for war; Medieval Spain; The Confraternity of Belchite, the Ribat, and the Temple; The will of Alfonso I, 'El Batallador', King of Aragon and Navarre: a reassessment (with a reply to Dr. Forey); La colonización cristiana de Menorca durante el reinado de Alfonso III 'El Liberal', rey de Aragon; Free Moslems in the Balearics under Christian rule in the 13th century; Anatomy of ambivalence: Muslims under the Crown of Aragon in the late 13th century; A Jewish mercenary in the service of the King of Aragon; Jewish participation in royal funerary rites: an early use of the Representatio in Aragon; A plot which failed? The case of the corpse found in the Jewish Call of Barcelona(1301); Complicidad criminal: un aspecto insólito de convivencia judeo-cristiana; Mafiosi and malsines: violence, fear and faction in the Jewish aljamas of Valencia in the 14th century.

    $Mann, Vivian B. and Thomas F. Glick, eds. Convivencia: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain. New York: George Braziller, 1992. ISBN: 0807612863.

    $Marin, Manuela. The Formation of Al-Andalus, [= vols 46 and 47 of the 47-volume series Formation of the Classical Islamic World.] Brookfield VT: Ashgate, 1998-

    $Meyerson, Mark D. and Edward D. English, eds. Christians, Muslims, and Jews in Medieval and Early Modern Spain: Interaction and Cultural Change (Notre Dame Conferences in Medieval Studies, 8.) South Bend IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000.ISBN: 026802250X

    $Mirrer, Louise. Women, Jews and Muslims in the Texts of Reconquest Castile. Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. ISBN: 0472107232

    Wolf, Kenneth B. "The Earliest Spanish Christian Views of Islam," Church History 55 (1986): 281-293.

    Wolf, Kenneth B. Christian Martyrs in Muslim Spain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
    Will be online at http://libro.uca.edu/

    Wolf, Kenneth B. "The 'Moors' of West Africa and the Beginnings of the Portuguese Slave Trade." Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 24 (1994): 449-69.

    Wolf, Kenneth B. "Christian Views of Islam in Early Medieval Spain."  In Medieval Christian Perceptions of Islam: A Collection of Essays. Edited by John Toland. New York: Garland, 1996.

    The Reconquest

    *Beazley, C. Raymond. "Prince Henry of Portugal and the African Crusade of the Fifteenth Century." The American Historical Review 16:1 (1910): 11-23. [Online via JSTOR]

    Bisko, Charles Julian. The Frontier in Medieval History [Paper Presented at a medieval history session, American Historical Association, Washington D C, 29 December 1955]

    *Bishko, Charles Julian. "The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest, 1095-1492." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 396-456. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89 Online at http://libro.uca.edu/bishko/spr1.htm

    *Brodman, James William. Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.
    Online at http://libro.uca.edu/rc/captives.htm

    Burns, Robert Ignatius. The Crusader Kingdom of Valencia: Reconstruction on a Thirteenth-Century Frontier, 2 Vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.
    Online at
    http://libro.uca.edu/ck/crusader.htm

    *Burns, Robert Ignatius. Islam under the Crusaders: Colonial Survival in the Thirteenth-century Kingdom of Valencia. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1973.

    *Burns, Robert Ignatius. Medieval Colonialism: Postcrusade Exploitation of Islamic Valencia. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975.

    *Burns, Robert I. "The Crusade against Al-Azraq: A Thirteenth-Century Mudejar Revolt in International Perspective." The American Historical Review 93:1 (1988): 80-106. [Online via JSTOR]

    *Dillard, Heath. Daughters of the Reconquest: Women in Castilian Town Society, 1100-1300. Cambridge Iberian and Latin American Studies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
    Online at
    http://libro.uca.edu/dillard/daughters.htm

    *Fletcher, Richard A. Saint James's catapult : the life and times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
    Online at http://libro.uca.edu/stanislawski/portugal.htm

    *Forey, Alan J. The Templars in the Corona de Aragon. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.
    Online at
    http://libro.uca.edu/forey/templars.htm

    *Gerber, Jane S. The Jews of Spain: A History of the Sephardic Experience. New York: Free Press, 1994. ISBN: 0029115744

    *Guiance. Ariel. "To Die for Country, Land, or Faith in Castilian Medieval Thought." Journal of Medieval History  24:4 (1999): 313-32.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Hazard, Harry. "Moslem North Africa, 1049-1394." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 457-85. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Lewis, Archibald, The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718-1050. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1965.
    Online at
    http://libro.uca.edu/lewis/sfcatsoc.htm

    $Lomax, Derek. The Reconquest of Spain. London & New York: 1978.

    *MacKay, Angus. Spain in the Middle Ages: From Frontier to Empire, 1000-1500. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1977.

    $McCrank, Lawrence J. Medieval Frontier History in New Catalonia. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS528. London: Variorum, 1996. ISBN: 0-86078-582-3
    Contents: Documenting reconquest and reform: the growth of archives in the Medieval Crown of Aragon; Monastic inland empires and the Mediterranean coastal reconquest in New Catalonia, 1050-1276; The foundation of the confraternity of Tarragona by Archbishop Oleguer Bonestruga 1126-1129; Norman crusaders in the Catalan reconquest: Robert Burdet and the principality of Tarragona, 1129-55; The frontier of the Spanish reconquest and the land acquisitions of the Cistercians of Poblet, 1150-1276; The Cistercians of Poblet as Medieval frontiersmen; The Cistercians of Poblet as landlords: protection, litigation and violence on the medieval Catalan frontier; The economic administration of a monastic domain by the Cistercians of Poblet, 1150-1276; The fiscal anatomy of the post-restoration Church of Tarragona: an audit of the Rationes decimarum Hispaniae (1279-1280).

    Nicolle, David and Angus McBride. El Cid and the Reconquista 1000-1492 (Men-At-Arms, No 200). Osprey, 1998. ISBN: 0850458404

    *O'Callaghan, Joseph F. The Cortes of Castile-León, 1188-1350. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.
    Online at http://libro.uca.edu/cortes/cortes.htm

    *O'Callaghan, Joseph F. A History of Medieval Spain. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993 ISBN: 0801492645
    -The standard work.

    *Powers, James F. A Society Organized for War: The Iberian Municipal Militias in the Central Middle Ages, 1000-1284. Berkeley, London: University of California Press, 1988 ISBN: 0520056442
    Online at http://libro.uca.edu/socwar/war.htm

    *Reilly, Bernard F. The Kingdom of León-Castilla Under Queen Urraca, 1109-1126. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.
    Online at http://libro.uca.edu/urraca/urraca.htm

    *Reilly, Bernard F. The Kingdom of León-Castilla Under King Alfonso VI, 1065-1109. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
    Online at
    http://libro.uca.edu/alfonso6/alfonso.htm

    *Stanislawski, Dan. The Individuality of Portugal: A Study in Historical-political Geography. Austin: University of Texas Press,1959.
    Online at http://libro.uca.edu/stanislawski/portugal.htm

    V.V.A.A. Los recursos militares en la Edad  Media hispánica  IHCM, Madrid, 2001. Número especial de la Revista de Historia Militar, año XLV
        M.J. Viguera Molins, "La organización militar en al-Andalus";
        F. García Fitz, "La organización militar en Castilla y León (siglos XI-XIII)";
        M.T. Ferrer Mallol, "La organización militar en Cataluña";
        M.C. Quintanilla Raso y C. Castrillo LLamas, "Tenencia de fortalezas en la Corona de Castilla (siglos XIII-XV)";
        E. Mitre Fernández y M. Alvira Cabrer, "Ideología y guerra en los reinos de la España Medieval";
        P.A. Porras Arboledas, "Derecho de guerra y paz en la España Medieval";
        A. Gómez Moreno, "La guerra en la España medieval: fuentes literarias y literatura militar"; M.A. Ladero Quesada, "Recursos militares y guerras de los Reyes Católicos"

    *Wheeler, Benjamin W. "The Reconquest of Spain before 1095." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 31-39. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    CRUSADES AND HERETICS

    [NB: This section also contains refs. to non-English titles]

    Sources

    *Hamilton, Janet, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov. Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World c.650-c.1450: Selected Sources., Manchester: Manchester University Press. 1998. ISBN: 0719047641

    Maitland, S.R. Facts and Documents Illustrative of the History, Doctrine and Rites of the Ancient Albigenses and Waldeneses. 1832

    *Wakefield, Walter L. and Austin P. Evans. Heresies of the High Middle Ages: Selected Sources. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969.

    *Wakefield, Walter L. Heresy, Crusade, and Inquisition in Southern France, 1100-1250. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1974.
    -Contains a translation of the Chronicle of William Pelhisson, a source for the early years of the Dominican Inquisition.

    $William of Tudela.  The Song of the Cathar Wars, A History of the Albigensian Crusade. Translated and edited by Janet Shirley. Crusade Texts in Translation. Brookfield VT: Ashgate, 1996. ISBN: 1-85928-331-4
    -Blurb: This is the first translation into English of the early 13th-centuryProven al poem that narrates key events before, during and after the Albigensian Crusade, which was launched in 1209. The Provençal poem is known as La Canso, in French as La Chanson de la Croisade Albigeoise. It is a contemporary source for an important period in the development of western Europe; one which saw the expansion of France and the growth of the Papacy. The poem is unusual in that it was started by an ardent supporter of the Crusade, but continued by an equally determined opponent of what he saw as marauding northerners; thus, the work shows both these points of view. It is also valuable because it lets us see what its contemporary audience expected, and reveals something of the nature of that society--their strong preoccupation and land-ownership, their ideas of right and wrong, reliance on active intervention by God and the saints, and the delight as well as the horror of war. It also contains factual detail not available elsewhere.

    Secondary Literature

    $Barber, Malcolm. Crusaders and Heretics, 12th - 14th Centuries. Aldershot: Variorum, 1995. ISBN: 0-86078-476-2
    Contents: Introduction; Acknowledgement; The origins of the Order of the Temple; James of Molay, the last Grand Master of the Temple; Women and Catharism; Lepers, Jews and Moslems: the plot to overthrow Christendom in 1321; The Pastoureaux of 1320; The Templars and the Turin Shroud; The world picture of Philip the Fair; The social context of the Templars; The Crusade of the Shepherds, 1251; Western attitudes to Frankish Greece in the 13th century; Catharism and the Occitan Nobility: the Lordships of Cabaret, Minerve and Termes; Supplying the Crusader States: the role of the Templars; The Order of Saint Lazarus and the Crusades; Index.

    Birks, W. and R.A.Gilbert. The Treasure of Montsegur. London: Crucible, 1987.

    *Bisson, Thomas. N. “The Organized Peace in Southern France and Catalonia, ca. 1140-ca.1233.“ The American Historical Review 82:2 (1977): 290-311. [Online via JSTOR]

    *Bisson, Thomas. N. “Unheroed Pasts: History and Commemoration in South Frankland before the Albigensian Crusades.“ Speculum 65 2 (1990): 281-308. [Online via JSTOR]

    $Bonde, Sheila. Fortress-Churches of Languedoc: Architecture, Religion, and Conflict in the High Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-45084-5.

    Christie-Murray, David. A History of Heresy. London: New English Library, 1976.

    $Costen, Michael. The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997. ISBN: 0719043328

    Denomy, Alexander J. The Heresy of Courtly Love. New York: D.X.McMullen, 1947.

    Gadal, Antoine. The Legacy of the Cathars. Rosenkruiz Pres.

    *Evans, Austin P. "The Albigensian Crusade." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. II The Later Crusades, 1189-1311. Edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard. 277-324. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Hamilton, Bernard. Monastic Reform, Catharism, and the Crusades, (900-1300). London: Variorum Reprints, 1979. ISBN: 0-86078-042-2
    Contents: The city of Rome and the Eastern Churches in the 10th century; The monastic revival of 10th- century Rome; The monastery of S. Alessio and the religious and intellectual Renaissance in 10th-century Rome; The house of Theophylact and the promotion of religious life among women in 10th-century Rome; Orientale lumen et Magistra latinitas: Greek influences on Western Monasticism (900-1100); S. Pierre Damien et les mouvements monastiques de son temps; The origins of the Dualist Church of Drugunthia; The Albigensian Crusade; The Cathar Council of Saint-Félix reconsidered; The Cistercians in the Crusader states; Rebuilding Zion: the Holy Places of Jerusalem in the 12th century; The Armenian church and the Papacy at the time of the Crusades; The elephant ofChrist: Reynald of Châtillon.

    $Hamilton, Bernard. Crusaders, Cathars and the Holy Places (Variorum Collected Studies Series, Cs 656). London: Variorum, 2000. ISBN: 0860787850

    $Hamilton, Bernard. The Medieval Inquisition. Holmes & Meier, 1982. ISBN: 0841906955

    *Hamilton, Bernard. Religion in the Medieval West. Edward Arnold, 1986. ISBN: 0713164611

    $#Hamilton, Bernard. The Albigensian Crusade. London: Historical Association, 1974.
    -A pamphlet rather than a book.

    *Heymann, Frederick G. "The Crusades against the Hussites." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 586-646. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Holmes, Edmond. The Holy Heretics. London: Thinkers Library, 1956.

    $Lambert, Malcolm. Medieval Heresy: Popular Movements from the Gregorian Reform to the Reformation, 2nd edition, Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. ISBN: 063117432X
    -Certainly the best place to start for any reading about medieval heresy.

    $Lambert, Malcolm. The Cathars. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998 ISBN: 063120959X

    *Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. Montaillou, the Promised Land of Error. Translated by Barbara Bray. New York: Vintage Books, 1979. c. 1978.See also Boyle, Leonard. "Montaillou Revisited: Mentalité and Methodology." In Pathways to Medieval Peasants. Edited by J.A. Raftis. 119-40. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1981. A famous article in which Boyle points to the shortcomings of Le Roy Ladurie's Montaillou.

    *Lea, Henry Charles. A History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages. London: Macmillan, 1888. Reprinted, New York: Russell & Russell, 1955.

    Leff, Gordon.Heresy in the Later Middle Ages. 2 Vols. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1967.

    *Lerner, Robert E. The Heresy of the Free Spirit in the Later Middle Ages. Berkeley: California University Press, 1972.

    *Lewis, Archibald, The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718-1050. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1965.
    Online at
    http://libro.uca.edu/lewis/sfcatsoc.htm

    Loos, Milan. Dualist Heresy in the Middle Ages. Prague: Academia M.Nijhoff,  1974.

    Marvin, L.W. "War in the South: A First Look at Siege Warfare in the Albigensian Crusade, 1209-1218." War in History 8:4 (2001): 373-95.

    *McCaffrey, Emily. "Memory and Collective Identity in Occitanie."  History and Memory: Studies in Representation of the Past 13 (Spring-Summer 2001):114-38 [Online at Infotrac Onfile]

    *Moore, Robert I. The Birth of Popular Heresy. London: E.Arnold, 1975.

    Oldenbourg, Zoé. Le Bûcher de Montségur. Paris. Librairie Gallimard, 1959.  Translated by Peter Green as  Massacre at Montségur. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1961.

    *Paden, William D. "The Troubadours and the Albigensian Crusade: A Long View." Romance Philology 49: 2 (1995): 168-91. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    Russell, J.B. and Carl T. Berkhout. Medieval Heresies: A Bibliography 1960-1979. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies. 1981.

    *Runciman, Steven. The Medieval Manichee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1955. ISBN: 0521289262
    Advances a "continuation thesis" -- that medieval dualist believers descended directly from late ancient Manicheans.

    *Strayer, Joseph. The Albigensian Crusades. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1971. ISBN: 0472064762

    Sumption, Jonathan. The Albigensian Crusade. London; Boston: Faber, 1978.
    -Probably now superceded by Malcolm Lambert's book on the Cathars.

    *Throop, Palmer A. "Criticism of Papal Crusade Policy in Old French and Provencal." Speculum 13:3 (1938): 379-412. [Online via JSTOR]

    Vaneigem, Raoul. Movement of the Free Spirit. New York: Zone books, 1991.

    Warner, H.J. The Albigensian Heresy. London: SPCK, 1922.

    *Wakefield, Walter L. Heresy, Crusade, and Inquisition in Southern France, 1100-1250. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

    Non English Titles

    Sources

    Bozòki, Edina. Le Livre secret des Cahares: Interregatio Iohannis, apocryphe d`origine bogomile. Paris: Beauchesne, 1980.

    Duvernoy, Jean. L`Registre d`inquisition de Jacques Fournier 1318-1325. 3 vols. Toulouse: Edouard Privat, 1965.

    Thouzelliner, Christine. Une Somme anti-cathare: Le Liber contra Manicheos de Durand de Huesca. Louvain: Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniese, 1964.

    Thouzelliner, Christine. Le Livre des Deux Principles. Paris: Cerf, 1973.

    Thouzelliner, Christine. Rituel Cathare. Paris: Cerf, 1973.

    Secondary Literature

    Probst- Biraben, J.H. Les mystères des Templiers. Cahiers astrologiques. Nice: 1947.

    Borst, Arno. Die Katharer. Stuttgart: 1953.

    Brehier, Louis. l'Eglise et l'Orient au moyen age: les croisades. Reprinted, New York: AMS Press, 1978.

    Brenon, Anne. Le vrai visage du catharisme.   Editions Loubatières, 1989

    Duvernoy, Jean. La Religion des Cathares. Toulouse: Edouard Privat, 1976.

    Duvernoy, Jean. Le Catharisme: La Historie des Cathares.Toulouse: Edouard Privat, 1979.

    Döllinger, Ignaz. Beiträge zur Sektgesichte der Mittelalters: vol.1: Gesichte der gnostisch-manichäischen Sekten im frühen Mittelalter. Darmstadt: Wissebschaftlige Buchgesellschaft, 1968.

    Döllinger, Ignaz. Beiträge zur Sektgesichte der Mittelalters: vol.2: Dokumente vornhemlich zur Geschicte der Valdensier und Katharer. Darmstadt: Wissebschaftlige Buchgesellschaft, 1968.

    Høinæs, Hans-Jørgen. Katharene, Trubadurene og Gralstraditionen. Copenhagen: St.Ansgers Forlag, ?

    Loiseleur, J. La doctrine secrète des Templiers. Orleans: 1872.

    Nelli, Renè. Èncritures cathares: La Cêne secretè.etc. Paris: Denøel, 1959.

    Nelli, Renè. La philosophie du Catharisme. Paris: Payot, 1978.

    Roche, Deodat. Katharene. Copenhagen: St.Ansgers Forlag,  ?

    Roquebert, Michel.  l'épopoée cathare.   4 vols.  Toulouse: Edouard Privat, 1970-1994.

    THE NORTHERN CRUSADES

    Sources

    $Henricus, de Lettis, ca. 1187-ca. 1259. [Henry of Livonia]. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, Translated by James A. Brundage. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961.

    Secondary Literature

    *Barraclough, Geoffrey. The Origins of Modern Germany. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.

    *Carsten, F. L. (Francis Ludwig). The Origins of Prussia. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1954.

    *Christiansen, Eric. The Northern Crusades: the Baltic and the Catholic frontier, 1100-1525, London, 1980. 2nd ed., New York: Penguin, 1998. ISBN: 0140266534
    -The standard work in English in a field dominated by German language historiography.

    *Johnson, Edgar N. "The German Crusade on the Baltic." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 545-85. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Lotter, Friedrich. "The Crusading Idea and the Conquest of the Region East of the Elbe." In Medieval Frontier Societies. Edited by Robert Bartlett and Angus McKay. 266-306. Oxford: Clarendon, 1990.

    $Urban, William. The Baltic Crusade. Dekalb, 1975; 2d ed. Chicago: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, 1994.
    Most of Urban's books are being issued in 2nd editions, and in most cases, the new material is quite extensive.

    $Urban, William. The Livonian Crusade. Washington: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, 1981.

    $Urban, William. The Prussian Crusade. Lanham: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, 1980.

    $Urban, William. The Samogitian Crusade. Chicago: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, 1989.

    *Urban, William. "An Historical Overview of the Crusade to Livonia"
    http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/crusades/cruurban.html

    CRUSADES: ECCLESIASTICAL ASPECTS

    Sources

    Pilgrimage Sources

    *The Itinerary of the Anonymous Pilgrim of Bordeaux (Itinerarium Burdigalense) - 333 CE. [At Christus Rex]

    *Egeria: Description of the Liturgical Year in Jerusalem: Translation 4th Century [At Oxford]

    *Egeria: Travelogue, Translated by M.L. McClure, The Pilgrimage of Etheria, (New York, 1915) [At Yale]

    Arculf, as related by Saint Adamnan (c.624 - September 23, 704 CE): De Locis Sanctis (On the Holy Land), 670 CE  [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]
    A description of the East told to him by a Frank bishop Arculf, whose ship was driven ashore near Iona on the way back from Jerusalem.

    *Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Book V [Chapters 15-17 summarize Adamnan's Locis Sanctis]

    *Huneberc of Heidenheim: The Hodoeporican of St. Willibald, 8th Century
    The Hodoeporicon is the only narrative extant of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the eighth century, forming a bridge between the works of Adaman/Arculf (670).

    *Daniel (1106-1107): The Pilgrimage of the Russian Abbot Daniel in the Holy Land, 1106-1107 A.D., annotated by Sir C. W.Wislon (London, 1895) [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]

    *Margery Kempe: The Book of Margery Kempe: Pilgrimage to Jerusalem. excerpts.[At luminarium.org]

    *Anonymous:  Guide-book to Palestine. (c. 1350). Translated by. J. H. Barnard. London: Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, 1894.  [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]

    *Margery Kempe (1413-1415): Book of Margery Kempe. (Text--Butler-Bowden translation of Chapter 26-34, 37-41)[At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]

    *John Poloner (1422): Description of the Holy Land (c. 1421), based on the translation of Aubrey Stewart from the Tobler text. London, 1894. [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]

    *Felix Fabri (1480 & 1483-84): The Book of the Wanderings of Felix Fabri (Circa 1480-1483 A.D.) trans. Aubrey Stewart. 2 vols. London: Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 1896 [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]

    *Pietro Casola (1494): Canon Pietro Casola's Pilgrimage to Jerusalem in the Year 1494. trans. Mary Margaret Newett. Manchester: The University Press, 1907. [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]

    Website Traveling to Jerusalem [University of Southern Colarado]
    A great site that focuses on vistors' accounts of Jerusalem. It is adding, bit by bit, many of the texts published by the Palestine Pilgrims Text Society.

    Secondary Literature

    Canon Law

    *Brundage, James A. Medieval Canon Law and the Crusader. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.

    Brundage, James A. "Cruce signari: The Rite for Taking the Cross in England." Traditio 22 (1962)

    Brundage, James A. "A Note on Attestation of Crusaders' Vows." Catholic Historical Review 61 (1966)

    *Brundage, James A. "Holy War and the Medieval Lawyers." The Holy War. Edited by Thomas Patrick Murphy. 99-140. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1976.

    $Brundage, James A. The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law. Collected Studies Series, Cs 338. London: Variorum, 1991. ISBN: 0860782913
    Contents: Preface; Adhemar of Puy: the bishop and his critics; An errant crusader: Stephen of Blois; The Crusade of Richard I; Two canonical questions; Richard the Lion-Heart and Byzantium; The army of the First Crusade and the crusade vow: some reflections on a recent book; The votive obligations of crusaders: the development of a canonistic doctrine; 'Cruce signari': the rite for taking the cross in England; A note on the attestation of crusaders' vows; St Anselm, Ivo of Chartres and the ideology of the First Crusade; Holy war and the medieval lawyers; The limits of the war-making power: the contribution of medieval canonists; A 12th-century Oxford disputation concerning the privileges of the Knights Hospitallers; A transformed angel (X. 3.31.18): the problem of the crusading monk; The 13th-century Livonian Crusade: Henricus de Lettis and the first legatine mission of Bishop William de Modena; The crusader's wife: a canonistic quandary; The crusader's wife revisited; Marriage law in the Lati Kingdom of Jerusalem; Christian marriage in 13th-century Livonia; Prostitution, miscegenation, and sexual purity in the First Crusade; Second thoughts; Index.

    Papacy and Crusading

    $Cowdrey, Herbert E. J. Popes, Monks, and Crusaders. London: Hambledon Press, 1984.

    $Ekelund, R. B., R. F. Hébert, R. D. Tollison, G. M. Anderson, and A. B. Davidson. Sacred Trust: The Medieval Church as an Economic Firm. Oxford, 1996.

    *Housley, Norman. The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades, 1305-1378. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, c1986.

    $Housley, Norman. The Italian Crusades: the Papal-Angevin Alliance and the Crusades against Christian Lay Powers, 1254-1343. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

    Lea, H. C. A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church. 3 vols. Volume III: Indulgences. Philadelphia: 1896.
    Advocates the idea that the papal drive towards hegemony and papal financial needs drove the Crusades.

    Lunt, W. E. ed. Papal Revenues in the Middle Ages. 2 vols. New York: 1934
    Advocates the idea that the papal drive towards hegemony and papal financial needs drove the Crusades.

    Lunt, W. E. Financial Relations of the Papacy with England to 1327. Cambridge MA: 1939

    $Purcell, Maureen. Papal Crusading Policy: The Chief Instruments of Papal Crusading Policy and Crusade to the Holy Land from the Final Loss of Jerusalem to the Fall of Acre, 1244-1291. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1975.

    *Schein, Sylvia. Fideles crucis: the Papacy, the West, and the Recovery of the Holy Land, 1274-1314. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

    $Setton, K. M. The Papacy in the Levant, 1204-1571, 4 vols. Philadelphia: 1976-84.

    Monasticism and crusading

    $Constable, Giles. Monks, Hermits, and Crusaders in Medieval Europe. London: Variorum, 1988.

    $Cowdrey, Herbert E. J. The Crusades and Latin Monasticism, 11th--12th Centuries. Variorum Collected Studies Series, Cs 662. London: Ashgate, 1999. ISBN: 0860787958
    Contents: Preface; Acknowledgements; The Crusades: The reform papacy and the origin of the Crusades; From the Peace of God to the First Crusade; Pope Gregory VII and the bearing of arms; Pope Victor and the empress A.; Pope Urban II and the idea of Crusade; Canon law and the First Crusade; Martyrdom and the First Crusade; Latin Monasticism: William I's relations with Cluny further considered; St Hugh and Gregory VII; Cluny and Rome; Count Simon of Crépy's monastic conversion; Pope Gregory VII and la Chaise-Dieu; Legal problems raised by agreements of confraternity; "Quidam frater Stephanus nomine, Anglicus natione": the English background of Stephen Harding; Peter, monk of Molesme and Prior of Jully; The Carthusians and their contemporary world: the evidence of twelfth-century bishops' Vitae; Hugh of Avalon, Carthusian and bishop; The Carthusian impact upon Angevin England; Index.

    Pilgrimage -  Discussions

    *Allair, Gloria. "Medieval Italian Pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela: New Literary Evidence." Journal of Medieval History  24:2 (1998): 177-89.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    #Biddle, Martin. The Tomb of Christ. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1999.
    The Church of the Holy Sepulcher is often a major disappointment for western visitors. Biddle shows how history has impacted the current structure, why it is so interesting, and why it may indeed be the genuine location of the tomb of Christ.

    $Birch, Debra. Pilgrimage to Rome in the Middle Ages: Continuity and Change. Woodbridge,: Boydell. 1998.

    $Bowman, Glenn. "Pilgrim Narratives of Jerusalem and the Holy Land: A Study in Ideological Distortion." In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage. Edited by Alan Morinis. 149-68. New York : Greenwood Press, 1992.

    *Browner, Jessica A. "Viking" Pilgrimage to the Holy Land fram! fram! cristmenn, crossmenn, konungsmenn! (Oláfs saga helga, ch. 224.)" Essays in History 34 (1992) http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/journals/EH/EH34/browne34.html

    *Bull, Marcus. "The Pilgrimage Origins of the First Crusade." History Today 47:5 (May 1997): 10-15. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    $Coleman, Simon & John Elsner. "Exile and Return: Jewish Pilgrimage." In Simon Coleman and John Elsner. Pilgrimage Past and Present in the World Religions. 34-51. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1995

    $Coleman, Simon & John Elsner. " The Centre in the Desert: Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca." In Simon Coleman and John Elsner. Pilgrimage Past and Present in the World Religions. 52-71. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1995

    $Eade, John, and Michael J. Sallnow, eds. Contesting the Sacred: The Anthropology of Christian Pilgrimage. London; New York: Routledge, 1991.

    $Eliade, Mircea. The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. Translated by Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper & Row, 1959.
    On the notion of sacred space, see pp. 20-37; 62-5.

    *Favreau-Lilie, Marie-Luise. "The German Empire and Palestine: German Pilgrimages to Jerusalem between the 12th and 16th Centuries." Journal of Medieval History 21 (1995), 321-41. [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    $Joannes Wirzburgensis [John of Würzburg], 12th century. Description of the Holy Land by John of Wurzburg. (A.D. 1160-1170) Translated by Aubrey Stewart ... with notes by Col. Sir Charles W. Wilson, Library of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society; v.5, no. 2., London, 1896.

    $Morinis, Alan. "Introduction: The Territory of the Anthropology of Pilgrimage." In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage. Edited by Alan Morinis. 1-28. New York : Greenwood Press, 1992.

    $Preston, James. 1992. "Spiritual Magnetism: An Organizing Principle for the Study of Pilgrimage." In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage. Edited by Alan Morinis. 31-46. New York : Greenwood Press, 1992.

    *Runciman, Steven. "The Pilgrimages to Palestine before 1095." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. I The First Hundred Years. Edited by Marshall W. Baldwin. 68-80. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Savage, Henry L. "Pilgrimages and Pilgrim Shrines in Palestine and Syria after 1095." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 36-68. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.Sumption, Jonathan. Pilgrimage: An Image of Medieval Religion. 1975

    $Thayer, James Steel. "Pilgrimage and Its Influence on West African Islam." In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage. Edited by Alan Morinis. 169ff. New York : Greenwood Press, 1992.

    *Turner, Victor, and Edith Turner. Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture: Anthropological Perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.

    $Utterback, Christine. "The Vision Becomes Reality: Medieval Women Pilgrims to the Holy Land." In Pilgrims and Travelers to the Holy Land. Studies in Jewish civilization 7. Edited by Bryan F. Le Beau, and Menachem Mor. 159-65. Omaha: Creighton University Press 1996.

    $Wilkinson, John. Jerusalem Pilgrims Before the Crusades. Aris & Phillips, 1977.

    $Wilkinson, John, Joyce Hill and W. F. Ryan, eds, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, 1099-1185. Hakluyt Society Second Series Volume 167. Hakluyt Society, 1988. ISBN: 0-90418-021-2

    Preaching

    $Cole, Penny, J. The Preaching of the Crusades to the Holy Land, 1095-1270 (Medieval Academy Books, No 98) Medieval Academy of America, 1991 ISBN: 0915651033

    $Edbury, Peter W. "Preaching the Crusade in Wales." In England and Germany in the High Middle Ages. Edited by Alfred Haverkamp and Hanna Vollrath. London: German Historical Institute London; Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

    *Maier, Christopher T. Preaching the Crusades: Mendicant Friars and the Cross in the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-45246-5. [Online at NetLibrary]

    *Maier, Christopher T, Crusade Propaganda and Ideology: Model Sermons for the Preaching of the Cross. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0521590612

    CRUSADES: MILITARY ASPECTS

    Sources

    *Sullivan, Dennis. Siegecraft: Two Tenth-Century Instructional Manuals by "Heron of Byzantium" Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2000. (A substantion part of the text is online in PFF format at Dumbarton Oaks 197 out of 333 pages.)

    Secondary Literature

    $Qal at Ar-Rabad (Ajlun). Three Middle Eastern Castles from the Time of the Crusades (variorum by C. N. Johns), Denys Pringle (Editor) Variorum, 1997 ISBN: 0860786277

    *Bennett, Matthew, with N. Hooper. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Medieval Warfare: The Middle Ages 768-907, Cambridge, 1996.

    Bennett, Matthew. "The Crusaders' 'Fighting March' Revisted." War in History 8:1 (2001): 1-18.

    *Boase, T. S. R. Castles and Churches of the Crusading Kingdom, Oxford, 1967.

    *Boase, Thomas S.R. Kingdoms and Strongholds of the Crusaders. London: Thames and Hudson; Indianapolis IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1971

    $Boase, T. S. R., ed. The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia, Edinburgh and London, 1978.

    Bradbury, Jim. The Medieval Siege. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK : Boydell Press, 1992.
    [Online via NetLibrary]

    *Chevedden, Paul E. "The Invention of the Counterweight Trebuchet: A Study in Cultural Diffusion." "Plates." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 54 (2000): 71-116. [Online at Dumbarton Oaks]

    *Fedden, R. Crusader Castles: A Brief Study in the Military Architecture of the Crusaders, 1950

    *France, John. Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades, 1000-1300 . Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999. ISBN: 0801486076

    *Gillingham, John. "Richard I & the Science of War." In War and Government in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of J.O. Prestwich. Edited by J.C. Holt & John Gillingham, 78-91. Cambridge UK: Boydell Press; Totowa NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1984

    Heath, Ian, Byzantine Armies 1118-1461 (Osprey Men-At-Arms Series, No 287). Osprey, 1995. ISBN: 1855323478

    *Heath, Ian. A Wargamers' Guide to the Crusades. Cambridge, Eng.: P. Stephens, 1980.

    *Hyland, Ann, The Medieval Warhorse; From Byzantium to the Crusades. Conshocken PA: Combined Books, 1997 ISBN: 0938289845.
    [Online via NetLibrary]

    $Keen, Maurice, ed. Medieval Warfare: A History. Los Angeles: Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 2000. ISBN: 0198206399

    $Kennedy, Hugh. Crusader Castles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-42068-7.

    #Lawrence, Thomas E. Crusader Castles. A new ed. with introduction and notes by Denys Pringle. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

    $Lev, Y., ed. War and Society in the Eastern Mediterranean, 7th - 15th Centuries. Leiden: Brill, 1997.
    Contents:
    Nicolle, D. "Arms of the Ummayad Era: Military Technology in a Time of Change." 9-100.
    'Athamina, K. "Some Administrative, Military and Socio-Political Aspects of early Muslim Egypt." 101-113.
    Lev, Y. "Regime, Army and Society in Medieval Egypt, 9th - 12th Centuries." 115-152.
    Bareket, E. "Personal Adversities of the Jews during the Period of the Fatimid Wars in Eleventh Century Palestine." 153-162.
    France, John. "Technology and Success of the First Crusade." 163-176.
    Möhring, H. "Zwischen Joseph-Legende und Mahdi-Erwartung: Erfolge und Ziele Sultan Saladins im Spiegel zeitgenössicher Dichtung und Weissagung." 177-223.
    Eddé, A.-M. "'Kurdes et Turcs dans l'armée ayyoubide de Syrie de Nord." 225-236.
    Frenkel, Y. "The Impact of the Crusades on Rural Society and Religious Endowments: The Case of Medieval Syria (Bilad al-Sham)." 237-248.
    Smith, J.M. "Mongol Society and Military in the Middle East: Antecedents and Adaptations." 249-266.
    Amitai-Preiss, R. "'The Mamluk Officer Class During the Reign of Sultan Baybars." 267-300.
    Martel-Thoumian, B. "Les dernières Battailes du grand émir Yasbak min Mahdi." 301-342.
    DeVries, Keith. "Gunpowder Weapons at the siege of Constantinople, 1453." 343-362.
    Williams, A. "Ottoman Military Technology: the Metallurgy of Turkish Armour." 363-397.
    Weigert, G. "A Note on Hudna: Peace Making in Islam." 399-405.

    *Molin, Kristian. "The Non-military Functions of Crusader Fortifications, 1187-circa 1380." Journal of Medieval History 23:4 (1997): 367-88. [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Marvin, Lawrence W. ""...Men Famous in Combat and Battle...": Common Soldiers and the Siege of Bruges, 1127." Journal of Medieval History  24:3 (1998): 245-58.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    Müller-Wiener, Wolfgang. Castles of the Crusaders. London: 1976.

    #Nicolle, David. Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350, 2 vols., White Plains, NY, 1988. Revised edition, Greenhill Books/Lionel Leventhal, 1999 ISBN: 1853673471

    $Nicolle, David. Saladin and the Saracens Armies of the Middle East 1100-1300 (Men-At-Arms Series, No 171). Osprey, 1986. ISBN: 0850456827

    $Marshall, Christopher. Warfare in the Latin East, 1192-1291. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN: 0521477425

    $Pringle, Denys. "Town Defences in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem." In The Medieval City under Siege. Edited by Ivy A. Corfis and Michael Wolfe. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK; Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 1995.

    $Pryor, John H. Geography, Technology and War: Studies in the Maritime History of the Mediterranean, 649-1571. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. pb ed. 1992.

    $Rogers, Randall. Latin Siege Warfare in the Twelfth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

    #Smail, R.C. "Crusaders' Castles of the Tweflth Century." Cambridge Historical Journal 10 (1951): 133-49.

    *Smail, R.C. Crusading Warfare, 1097-1193, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995 ISBN: 0521458382

    CRUSADES: MILITARY ORDERS

    Sources

    ORB: Military Orders, ed. Paul Crawford
    http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/milindex.html
    Contains online texts and some secondary articles.

    $The Rule, Statutes and Customs of the Hospitallers, 1099-1310. Translated by E. J. King. London: 1934, reissued, New York: AMS Press, 1980.

    $The Rule of the Templars: The French text of the Rule of the Order of the Knights Templar. Translated and introduced by J.M. Upton-Ward. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK; Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 1992.
    Text, but without notes, online at http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/T_Rule.html

    *The Rule of the Spanish Military order of St. James 1170-1493. Latin and Spanish Ttexts. Ed. with Apparatus Criticus, English translation and a preliminary study by Enrique Gallego Blanco. Leiden, Brill, 1971.

    *Dubois, Pierre, fl 1300. The Recovery of the Holy Land. Translated by W.I. Brandt. New York, Columbia University Press, 1956.

    Secondary Literature

    General

    $Barber, Malcolm, ed. The Military Orders: Fighting for the Faith and Caring for the Sick. Aldershot, Great Britain; Brookfield, Vt.: Variorum, 1994.

    Barber, Malcolm. "The Order of St. Lazarus and the Crusades." Catholic Historical Review 80 (1994), 439-56.

    Brodman, James W. "Rule and Identity: The Case of the Military Orders." The Catholic Historical Review 88:3 (2001): 383-400.

    Crawford, Paul. An Institution in Crisis: The Military Orders 1291-1310. (Ph.D. Dissertation,  University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1998)

    *Forey, Alan J. "The Order of Mountjoy." Speculum 46 (1971), 250-66. [Available online via JSTOR]

    *Forey, Alan J. "The Military Order of St. Thomas of Acre." English Historical Review 92 (1977), 481-503. [Available online via JSTOR]

    Forey, Alan J. "The Order of St. Thomas of Acre." At ORB
    http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/St._Thos.html

    $Forey, Alan J. The Military Orders: From the Twelfth to the Early Fourteenth Centuries, London, 1992.

    $Forey, Alan. Military Orders and Crusades (Collected Studies Series, Cs432) Variorum, 1994 ISBN: 0860783987
    Contents: The Emergence of the Military Order in the 12th Century; Recruitment to the Military Orders (12th to mid-14th Centuries); Novitiate and Instruction in the Military Orders in the 12th and 13th centuries; Women and the Military Orders in the 12th and 13th centuries; The Military Orders and the Spanish Reconquest in the 12th and 13th Centuries; The Military Orders and the Ransoming of Captives from Islam (12th to early 14th Centuries); The Military Orders and Holy War against Christians in the 13th Century; The Military Orders in the Crusading Proposals of the late-13th and early 14th centuries; The Militarisation of the Hospital of St. John; Constitutional Conflict and Change in the Hospital of St. John during the 12th and 13th centuries; The Order of Mountjoy; The Military Order of St. Thomas of Acre; The Crusading Vows of the English King Henry III.

    *Forey, Alan. "The Military Orders, 1120-1312." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 184-216. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Forey, Alan. "Recruitment to the Military Orders in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries." At ORB.
    http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/recruits.html

    Hamdy, Abdel Hamid. "Phillipe de Mezieres and the New Order of the Passion." Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts (Alexandria University) 18 (1964), 45-54.

    Housley, Norman. "Politics and Heresy in Italy: Anti-Heretical Crusades, Orders and Confraternities, 1200-1500." Journal of Ecclesiastical History 33 (1982), 193-208.

    Hunyadi, Zsolt, and  Laszlovszky, József, eds. The Crusades and the Military Orders Expanding the Frontiers of Medieval Latin Christianity. Budapest: CEU Medievalia, 2001
        34 articles ranging from the crusades and military orders in the Latin East, Central Europe and in Baltic area. See the web site
    Contents
        Crusades and Military Orders: State of Research - József Laszlovszky (Budapest, Hungary)
    The Crusades and the Latin East
        Some Reflections on the Impact of the Papacy on the Crusader States and the Military Orders in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries Rudolf Hiestand (Düsseldorf, Germany)
        The Isma'ilis and the Crusaders: History and Myth -- Farhad Daftary (London, United Kingdom)
        Crusade and Nationalism: Pierre Dubois, the Holy Land, and French Hegemony -- Marianne Sághy (Budapest, Hungary)
        A Crusader of the Later Middle Ages: King Peter I of Cyprus -- Svetlana Bliznyuk (Moscow, Russia)
    The Military Orders and the Latin East
        Al-Malik al-Mujahid, Ruler of Homs, and the Hospitallers (The Evidence in the Chronicle of Ibn Wasil) -- Balázs Major (Budapest, Hungary)
        Monetary Questions Arising out of the Role of the Templars as Guardians of the Northern Marches of the Principality of Antioch -- Michael Metcalf (Oxford, United Kingdom)
        Convergences of Oriental Christian, Muslim and Frankish Worshippers: the Case of Saydnaya and the Knights Templar -- Benjamin Z. Kedar (Jerusalem, Israel)
        The Military Orders in Cyprus in the Light of Recent Scholarship -- Peter W. Edbury (Cardiff, United Kingdom)
        Guillame Caoursin's Descriptio obsidione Rhodiae and the Archives of the Knights of Malta -- Theresa M. Vann (Collegeville, USA)
    The Crusades in Central and East-Central Europe
        The Age of the Crusades in the South-East of the Empire (Between the Alps and the Adriatic) -- Miha Kosi (Ljubljana, Slovenia)
        The Impact of the Crusades on Medieval Croatia -- Borislav Grgin (Zagreb, Croatia)
        An Eastern Adriatic Merchant Republic (Dubrovnik): Facing the Temptations of the Crusades -- Ivica Prlender (Zagreb, Croatia)
        Crusaders in the Central Balkans -- Ljubinka Dzidrova (Skopje, Macedonia)
        Jak vysvetlit porázku. Ondøej z Øezna a køizové výpravy proti husitùm -- Norman J. Housley (Leicester, United Kingdom)
        Some Remarks on Recent Historiography of the Crusade of Nicopolis (1396) -- László Veszprémy (Budapest, Hungary)
    The Military Orders in Central and East-Central Europe
        The Templars in Central Europe -- Karl Borchardt (Würzburg, Germany)
        Maisons and Possessions des Templiers en Hongrie -- Balázs Stossek (Szeged, Hungary)
        The Hospitallers in the Kingdom of Hungary: Houses, Personnel, and a Particular Activity up to c. 1400 -- Zsolt Hunyadi (Budapest-Szeged,      Hungary)
        The Hospitallers in Hungary before 1418: Problems and Sources -- Anthony Luttrell (Bath, United Kingdom)
        John of Palisna, the Hospitaller Prior of Vrana -- Neven Budak (Zagreb, Croatia)
        The Estates of the Hospitallers in Hungary at the End of the Middle Ages -- †Pál Engel (Budapest, Hungary)
        Böhmische und mährische Adelige als Förderer und Mitglieder der geistlichen Ritterorden -- Libor Jan (Brno, Czech Republic)
        Historical Monuments of the Teutonic Order in Transylvania -- Zoltán Soós (Budapest, Hungary)
        The Premyslid Dynasty and the Beginnings of the Teutonic Order -- Martin Wihoda (Brno, Czech Republic)
    Military Orders: Structures and Systems
        Die Ordines militares. Ein Ordenszötus zwischen Einheit und Vielfalt -- Kaspar Elm (Berlin, Germany)
        Structures in the Orders of the Hospital and the Temple (Twelfth to Early Fourteenth Century) - Select Aspects -- Jochen Burgtorf (Göttingen, Germany)
        Changing Forms of Hospitaller Address in English Private Charters of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries -- Michael Gervers (Toronto, Canada)
        The Military Orders and their Relations with Women -- Helen J. Nicholson (Cardiff, United Kingdom)
    The Baltic Crusades and the Military Orders
        Military Orders and the Beginning of Crusades in Prussia -- Maria Starnawska (Siedlce, Poland)
        Prussian Missions and the Invitation of the Teutonic Order into Kulmerland -- László Pósán (Debrecen, Hungary)
        Remarks on the Architecture of the Teutonic Order's Castles in Prussia -- Leszek Kajzer and Piotr A. Nowakowski (Lodz, Poland)
        The Teutonic Order in Livonia: Diverging Historiographic Traditions -- Juhan Kreem (Tallinn, Estonia)
        Scandinavian Nemtsy and Repaganized Russians. The Expansion of the Latin West During the Baltic Crusades and its Confessional Repercussions -- John H. Lind (Odense, Denmark)
    A Bibliography of the Crusades and the Military Orders (c.1800 entries)

    King, E. J. (Edwin James). The Knights Hospitallers in the Holy Land. London: Methuen, 1931.

    Nicholson, Helen. "Steamy Syrian Scandals: Matthew Paris on the Templars and Hospitallers." Medieval History 2 (1992), 68-85.

    $Nicholson, Helen. Templars, Hospitallers, and Teutonic Knights: Images of the Military Orders, 1128-1291. Leicester; New York: Leicester University Press, 1993. [Distributed in the U.S. and Canada by St. Martin's Press]

    $Nicholson, Helen, ed. Military Orders Volume 2, The Welfare and Warfare. London: Variorum, 1998. ISBN: 0-86078-679-X
    Contents: Introduction, J. Riley-Smith;
    Part I: Welfare: A 12th-century description of the Jerusalem Hospital, Benjamin Z. Kedar; Medical care in the Hospital of St John in Jerusalem, S. Edgington; Arabic medicine and hospitals in the Middle Ages: a probable model for the military orders' care of the sick, C. Toll; The archaeological approach to the study of disease in the Crusader states, as employed at Le Petit Gerin, P. Mitchell; The role of hospitals in the Teutonic Order, K. Militzer; Welfare and warfare in the Teutonic Order: a survey, B. Demel; Knightly Hospitallers or crusading knights? Decisive factors for the spread of the Teutonic knights in the Rhineland and the Low Countries 1216-1300, K. van Eickels;
    Part II: Warfare: Archbishop Henry of Reims and the militarization of the Hospitallers, J. Phillips; Templar castles between Jaffa and Jerusalem, D. Pringle; Before William of Tyre: European reports on the military orders' deeds in the East, 1150-85, H. Nicholson; Horses and crossbows: two important warfare advantages of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, S. Ekdahl; The Hospitallers during Clement V's pontificate: the spoiled sons of the papacy?, S. Menache; English contributions to the Hospitaller castle at Bodrum in Turkey: 1407-37, A. Luttrell; The price of Hospitaller crusading warfare in the18th century: the Maltese consulate on Zante, V Mallia-Milanes;
    Part III: Life Within the Military Orders: Literacy and learning in the military orders during the 12th and 13th centuries, A. Forey; A new edition of the Latin and French rule of the Temple, S. Cerrini; Wind beneath the wings: subordinate headquarters officials in the Hospital and the Temple from the 12th to the early 14th centuries, J. Burgtorf; The sergents of the military order of Santiago, C. de Ayala Martínez; Hospitaller and Templar commanderies in Bohemia and Moravia: their structure and architectural forms, L. Jan and V. Jesensk´y; Christ, Santiago and Avis: an approach to the rules of the Portuguese military orders in the late Middle Ages, P. Pinto Costa and A. Pestana de Vasconcelos; 15th-century Hospitaller architecture on Rhodes: patrons and master masons, F. Karassava-Tsilingiri; "The rights of the treasury": the financial administration of the Hospitallers on 15th-century Rhodes (1421-1522), J. Sarnowsky; Hospitaller record keeping and archival practices, T.M. Vann; Part IV: Relations with the outside world: Exemption in the Temple, the Hospital and the Teutonic Order: shortcomings of the institutional approach, L. García-Guijarro Ramos; The Hospitallers in Pomerania: between the priories of Bohemia and Alamania, K. Borchardt; The beginnings of the military orders in Frisia, J.A. Mol; Alfonso X and the Teutonic Order: an example of the role of the international military orders in mid13th-century Castile, J.M. Rodríguez García; The trial of the Templars revisited, M. Barber; "An island called Rhodes" and the "way" to Jerusalem: change and continuity in Hospitaller Exordia in the later Middle Ages, M. Dupuy; The Hospitallers and the kings of Navarre in the 14th and 15th centuries, C. Barquero Goñi; Strategies of survival: the military orders and the Reformation in Switzerland, C.T. Maier; The Order of St John as a "School for ambassadors" in counter-reformation Europe, D.F. Allen; The bailiwick of Brandenburg and the Prussian monarchy 1701-1810, J. Schellakowsky.

    Prawer, Joshua. "Military Orders and Crusader Politics in the Second Half of the XIIIth Century," in Die geistlichen Ritterorden Europas 217-29. Sigmaringen: 1980.

    $Riley-Smith, Jonathan. "The Templars and the Teutonic Knights in Cilician Armenia." In The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia, ed. T. S. R. Boase. Edinburgh: 1978.

    Sarnowsky, Jürgen, ed. Mendicants, Military Orders, and Regionalism in Medieval Europe. London: Variorum, 1999. ISBN: 1-84014-623-0.
    Contents: Regional problems in the history of the Mendicant and Military Orders, Jürgen Sarnowsky; Religious Orders in Border Regions: Religious frontiers: Bonds and tensions on the frontier: the Templars in 12th century Western Catalonia, Nikolas Jaspert; Political Frontiers: The Knights Hospitaller on the frontiers of the British Isles, Helen Nicholson; Linguistic Frontiers: Quelques aspects de comparaison entre les commanderies de l'Ordre teutonique à Metz et à Liège au moyen-âge, Dieter Heckmann; Different Levels of Regional Influence: Popes and Emperors: From the Holy Land to Prussia: the Teutonic Knights between emperors and popes and their policies until 1309, Klaus Militzer; Kings: Kings and priors: the Hospitaller priory of England in the later 15th century, Jürgen Sarnowsky; Dynasties: Between international horizon and regional boundary; the Bohemian crosiers of the Red Star in Silesia, Andreas Rüther; Lesser Nobility: The 'Hospice of the German nobility': changes in the admission policy of the Teutonic Knights in the 15th century, Johannes A. Mol; Bishops and Towns: The Basle Dominicans between town and province, Bernhard Neidiger; Nations, Regions and the Internal Structures of Religious Orders: Multinationality and Local Foundations: Local ties and international connections of the London Mendicants, Jens Röhrkasten; Regional Influences and Internal Divisions: change and conflict within the Hospitaller province of Italy after 1291, Anthony Luttrell; National Influences and Internal Divisions: The Hospitallers, Bohemia and the Empire, 1250-1330, Karl Borchardt; Economic Influences and Internal Divisions: King Wenceslas and the dissolution of the Teutonic Order's Bohemian Bailiwick, Libor Jan; Orders, Regions and Art: The Mendicant Orders and their architecture in Scotland, Anneli Randla; Conclusion: Mendicants, Military Orders and Regionalism, Jürgen Sarnowsky.

    *Seward, Desmond. The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders. 2d. ed. New York: Penguin Books, 1995; 1st. ed. Hamden: Archon Books, 1972.

    $Ward, Benedicta. "The New Orders." In The Study of Spirituality, ed. Cheslyn Jones et al., eds. 283-91. New York and Oxford: 1986.

    Templars

    *Barber, Malcolm. The Trial of the Templars. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

    $Barber, Malcolm. "The Trial of the Templars Revisited." In Military Orders Volume 2, The Welfare and Warfare. Edited by Helen Nicholson. 329-42.Variorum/Ashgate, 1998.
    Significantly revises his opinions as presented in The Trial of the Templars of 1978.

    $Barber, Malcolm. The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
    The standard work in English.

    Barber, Malcom. "The Templars." At ORB.
    http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/Templar.html

    $Bennett, Matthew. "La regle du Temple as a Military Manual, or how to deliver a cavalry charge." In Studies in Medieval History Presented to R. Allen Brown, 7-19; also in The Rule of the Templars, ed. and trans. Judith Upton-Ward, 175-88. Woodbridge: 1992

    *Forey, Alan J. The Templars in the Corona de Aragon. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.
    Online at
    http://libro.uca.edu/forey/templars.htm

    $Gilmour-Bryson, Anne. The Trial of the Templars in the Papal State and the Abruzzi. Citt`a del Vaticano: Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1982.

    Howarth, Stephen. The Knights Templar. London: Collins, 1982.

    *Legman, G. and others. The Guilt of the Templars. New York, Basic Books, 1966.

    Partner, Peter. The Murdered Magicians: The Templars and Their Myth. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. [See next]

    *Partner, Peter. The Knights Templar and Their Myth. Rev. ed. Rochester VT: Destiny Books, 1990.

    *Robinson, John J. Dungeon, Fire and Sword: The Knights Templar in the Crusades. New York: M. Evans, 1991.
    Written to be exciting, but with no footnotes. In other words, "past journalism" rather than history.

    Hospitallers

    Butler, Lionel, gen.ed. A History of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. London, Macmillan; New York, St. Martin's Press, 1967-. 

    Bradford, Ernle D. The Shield and the Sword: the Knights of St John. London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1972.

    Kingsley, Rose Georgina. The Order of St. John of Jerusalem (past and present). London: Skeffington, 1918.

    *Luttrell, Anthony. "The Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1306-1421." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 278-313. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Luttrell, Anthony. The Hospitallers in Cyprus, Rhodes, Greece and the West (1291-1440). Variorum Collected Studies Series CS77. London: Variorum, 1978. ISBN: 0-86078-022-8 Contents: Preface; The Hospitallers at Rhodes: 1306-1421; The Hospitallers in Cyprus after 1291; Feudal Tenure and Latin Colonization at Rhodes: 1306-1415; The Servitudo Marina at Rhodes: 1306-1462; Venice and the Knights Hospitallers of Rhodes in the Fourteenth Century; Crete and Rhodes: 1340-1360; Actividades económicas de los Hospitalarios de Rodas en el Mediterráneo Occidental durante el siglo XVI; Interessi fiorentini nell'economia e nella politica dei Cavalieri Ospedalieri di Rodi nel Trecento; The Hospitallers' Hospice of Santa Caterina at Venice: 1358-1451; Two Templar-Hospitaller Preceptories North of Tuscania; The Aragonese Crown and the Knights Hospitallers of Rhodes: 1291-1350; La Corona de Aragón y las Ordenes Militares durante el siglo XIV; Aragoneses y Catalanes en Rodas: 1350-1430; Los Hospitalarios en Aragón y la Peste Negra; Notes on the Chancery of the Hospitallers of Rhodes: 1314-1400; Jean and Simon de Hesdin: Hospitallers, Theologians, Classicists; Juan Fernández de Heredia at Avignon: 1351-1367; Greek Histories Translated and Compiled for Juan Fernández de Heredia, Master of Rhodes: 1377-1396; Coluccio Salutati's Letter to Juan Fernández de Heredia; The Principality of Archaea in 1377; Intrigue, Schism and Violence among the Hospitallers of Rhodes: 1377-1384; Emmanuele Piloti and Criticism of the Knights Hospitallers of Rhodes: 1306-1444; Corrigenda et Addenda; Index.

    $Luttrell, Anthony. Latin Greece, the Hospitallers and the Crusades: 1291-1440. London: Variorum, 1982.

    $Luttrell, Anthony. The Hospitallers of Rhodes and Their Mediterranean World. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS360. London: Variorum, 1992. ISBN: 0-86078-307-3
    Contents: Templari e Ospitalieri in Italia; The Hospitallers of Rhodes confront the Turks, 1306-1421; Gli Ospitalieri e l'eredità dei Templari; Notes on Foulques de Villaret, Master of the Hospital, 1305-1319; Settlement on Rhodes, 1306-1366; The 14th-century Capitula Rodi; Lindos and the defense of Rhodes, 1306-1522; Appunti sulle Compagnie Navarresi in Grecia, 1376-1404; The Hospitallers in Cyprus, 1310-1378; Rhodes and Jerusalem, 1291-1411; Le schisme dans les prieurés de l'Hôpital en Catalunya et Aragon; Les exploitations rurales des Hospitaliers en Italie au XIVe siècle; The Hospitallers around Narni and Terni, 1333-1373; The Hospitallers of Rhodes at Treviso, 1373; Hospitaller life in Aragon, 1319-1370; Las Ordenes militares en la sociedad hispánica--los Hospitalarios aragoneses, 1340-1360; Juan Fernández de Heredia and education in Aragón, 1349-1369; The Rhodian background of the order of St John on Malta; The military and naval organization of the Hospitallers at Rhodes,1310-1444; Corrigenda et addenda; Index.

    $Luttrell, Anthony. The Hospitaller State on Rhodes and its Western Provinces, 1306-1462. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS655. London: Variorum, 1999. ISBN: 0-86078-796-6
    Contents: Preface; The Genoese at Rhodes, 1306­1312; Gli Ospitalieri di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme dal continente alle isole; The Greeks of Rhodes under Hospitaller rule, 1306­1421; Sugar and schism: the Hospitallers in Cyprus from 1378 to 1386; The Hospitallers in Cyprus after 1386; The building of the castle of the Hospitallers at Bodrum; Rhodes: base militaire, colonie, métropole de 1306 à 1440; The earliest documents on the Hospitaller Corso at Rhodes, 1413 and 1416; The spiritual life of the Hospitallers of Rhodes; The Hospitallers' medical tradition, 1291­1530; The Hospitallers' western accounts, 1373/4 and 1374/5, The Hospitaller province of Alamania to 1428; The structure of the Aragonese Hospital,1349­1352; The economy of the fourteenth-century Aragonese Hospital; The Hospitaller priory of Catalunya in the fourteenth century; Gli Ospedalieri e un progetto per la Sardegna, 1370­1374; The Hospitallers of Rhodes between Tuscany and Jerusalem, 1310­1431; The Hospitaller priory of Venice in 1331; The Italian Hospitallers at Rhodes: 1437­1462; Addenda et corrigenda; Index.

    Peyrefitte, Roger. Knights of Malta. Translated by Edward Hyams. New York: Criterion books, c1959.

    *Rossi, Ettore. "Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1421-1523." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 314-39. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Knights of St. John in Jerusalem and Cyprus, c. 1050-1310i London, 1967.

    $Riley-Smith, Jonathan. Hospitallers: The History of the Order of St. John, Hambledon Press, 1999 ISBN: 1852851961

    Teutonic Order

    Opsahl, Eric. "The Teutonic Order." At ORB
    http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/opsahl1.html

    *Sterns, Indrikis. "The Teutonic Knights in the Crusader States." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. V The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. 315-79. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Spanish Orders

    O'Callaghan, Joseph. F. The Spanish Military Order of Calatrava and its Affiliates. London: 1975.

    CRUSADES AND GENDER

    Sources

    Secondary Literature

    $Barber, Malcolm. " Women and Catharism." In Malcolm Barber, Crusaders and Heretics, 12th - 14th Centuries. Aldershot: Variorum, 1995.

    Blythe, J M. "Women in the Military: Scholastic Arguments and Medieval Images of Female Warriors." History of Political Thought 22:2 (2001): 242-70.

    Brundage, James A. "The Crusader's Wife: A Canonistic Quandry." Studia Gratiana 12 (1967), ??

    Brundage, James A. "The Crusader's Wife Revisted." Studia Gratiana 14 (1967). ??

    $Forey, Alan. " Women and the Military Orders in the 12th and 13th Centuries." In Alan Forey, Military Orders and Crusades (Collected Studies Series, Cs432) Variorum, 1994

    $Gillingham, John. "Love, Marriage and Politics in the Twelfth Century." In John Gillingham. Richard Coeur-de-Lion: Kingship, Chivalry and War in the Twelfth Century. London; Rio Grande, Ohio: Hambledon Press, 1994.

    $Hamilton, Bernard. "Women in the Crusader States: the Queens of Jerusalem (1100-1190)." In Medieval Women, ed. Derek Baker. 143-73. Oxford: 1978

    Kedar, Benjamin Z. "The Passenger List of the a Crusader Ship, 1250." Studi Medievali 3rd ser. 13 (1972).

    Noonan, J.T. "Marital Affection in the Canonists." Studia Gratiana 12 (1967), 479-509.

    Nicholson, Helen. "Women on the Third Crusade." Journal of Medieval History 23 (1997)

    Makowski, E.M. "The Conjugal Debt and Medieval Canon Laws." Journal of Medieval History 3 (1977), 99-114.

    $Mirrer, Louise. Women, Jews and Muslims in the Texts of Reconquest Castile, Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. ISBN: 0472107232

    *Porges, W. "The Clergy, the Poor and the Non-combatents on the First Crusade." Speculum 21 (1946), 1-21. [Available online via JSTOR]

    $Utterback, Christine. "The Vision Becomes Reality: Medieval Women Pilgrims to the Holy Land." In Pilgrims and Travelers to the Holy Land. Studies in Jewish civilization 7. Edited by Bryan F. Le Beau, and Menachem Mor. 159-65. Omaha: Creighton University Press 1996.

    CRUSADES AND ECONOMICS

    Sources

    *Lopez, Robert S. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World; Illustrative Documents, New York: Columbia University Press, 1955 ISBN: 0231096267

    Secondary Literature

    $Abulafia, David. Italy, Sicily and the Mediterranean, 1100-1400. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS250. London: Variorum, 1987. ISBN: 0-86078-198-4.
    Contents: Preface; The crown and the economy under Roger II and his successors; Kantorowicz and Frederick II; Henry Count of Malta, 1203-30; Maometto e Carlo Magno; Corneto-Tarquinia and the Italian mercantile republics; Southern Italy and the Florentine economy, 1265-1370; Sul commercio del grano siciliano nel tardo Duecento; Catalan merchants and the Western Mediterranean, 1236-1300: the notarial acts of Barcelona and Sicily; Ancona, Byzantium and the Adriatic, 1155-73; Dalmatian Ragusa and the Norman Kingdom of Sicily; Venice and the Kingdom of Naples, 1332-43; The Norman Kingdom of Africa; The Pisan bacini; Crocuses and Crusaders: San Gimignano, Pisa and the Kingdom of Jerusalem; Marseilles, Acre and the Mediterranean, 1200-91.

    $Abulafia, David. Commerce and Conquest in the Mediterranean, 1100-1500, Aldershot: Variorum, 1993.
    Contents: Southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia in the medieval Mediterranean economy; Le origini del dualismo economico italiano; The end of Muslim Sicily; L'attività commerciale genovese nell'Africa normanna: la città di Tripoli; The reputation of a Norman king in Angevin Naples; Pisan commercial colonies and consulates in 12th-century Sicily; A Tyrrhenian triangle: Tuscany, Sicily, Tunis, 1277–1300; Una communità ebraica della Sicilia occidentale: Erice 1298–1304; The Crown and the economy under Ferrante of Naples (1458–1494); Gli italiani fuori Italia; The Levant trade of the minor cities in the 13th and 14th centuries: strengths and weaknesses; The merchants of Messina: Levant trade and domestic economy; The Anconitan privileges in the kingdom of Jerusalem and the Levant trade of Ancona; Narbonne, the lands of the Crown of Aragon and the Levant trade 1187–1400; Genoa and the security of the seas: the mission of Babilano Lomellino in 1350; Invented Italians in the Courtois Charters.

    *Ashtor, Eliyahu. A Social and Economic History of the Near East in the Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

    $Ashtor, Eliyahu. Studies on the Levantine Trade in the Middle Ages. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS74. London: Variorum, 1978 ISBN: 0-86078-020-1
    Contents: Preface; Quelques observations d’un orientaliste sur la thèse de Pirenne; Nouvelles refléxions; Aperçus sur les Radhanites; The Kamiri Merchants; Les lainages dans l’Orient médiéval; The Venetian supremacy in Levantine Trade; The Venetian cotton trade in Syria; Il commercio levantino di Ancona; Profits from the trade with the Levant in the 15th century; The volume of Levantine trade(1370–1498); Spice prices in the Near East in the 15th century; La découverte de la voie maritime aux Indes et les prix des épices; Index.

    $Ashtor, Eliyahu. Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, c1983.

    $Ashtor, Eliyahu. The Jews and the Mediterranean Economy, 10th-15th Centuries. London : Variorum Reprints, 1983.

    $Ashtor, Eliyahu. East-West Trade in the Medieval Mediterranean. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar. London: Variorum Reprints, 1986.

    $Ashtor, Eliyahu. Technology, Industry and Trade The Levant Versus Europe, 1250-1500. Edited by Benjamin Z. Kedar. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS372. London: Variorum, 1992. ISBN: 0-86078-323-5
    Contents: Preface; Le Proche-Orient au Bas Moyen Age: une région sous-développée; The economic decline of the Middle East during the Later Middle Ages - an outline; Levantine sugar industry in the Later Middle Ages - an example of technological decline; L'ascendant technologique de l'Occident médiéval; Aspetti della espansione italiana nel Basso Medioevo; L'apogée du commerce vénitien au Levant: un nouvel essai d'explication; Levantine alkali ashes and European industries; The factors of technological and industrial progress in the Later Middle Ages; The Jews in the Mediterranean trade in the later Middle Ages; Index.

    *Atiya, Aziz A. Crusade. Commerce and Culture. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press, 1962.

    *Citarella, Armand O. “Patterns in Medieval Trade: The Commerce of Amalfi Before the Crusades.” Journal of Economic History 28 4 (1968): 531-55. [Online via JSTOR]

    *Citarella, Armand O. “The Relations of Amalfi with the Arab World before the Crusades.” Speculum 42:2 (1967): 299-312. [Online via JSTOR]

    *Constable, Olivia Remie. “Funduq, Fondaco,and Khan in the Wake of Christian Commerce and Crusade” In The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. 145-56. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

    $Day, Gerald W. Genoa's Response to Byzantium, 1155-1204: Commercial Expansion and Factionalism in a Medieval City. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1988.

    $Jacoby, David. Studies on the Crusader States and on Venetian Expansion. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS301. London: Variorum, 1989. ISBN: 0-86078-249-2
    Contents: Knightly values and class consciousness in the crusader states; La littéerature française dans les états latins; The kingdom of Jerusalem and the collapse of Hohenstaufen power in the Levant; Pèlerinage médiéval et et sanctuaires de Terre Sainte; Crusader Acre in the 13th century; Montmusard; A Venetian manual of commercial practice; The rise of a new emporium: Famagusta; les Vénitiens naturalisés dans l'Empire byzantin; Venice and the Venetian Jews in the eastern Mediterranean; Les gens de mer dans la marine de guerre vénitienne.

    *Lopez, Robert S. The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages 950-1350 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

    *Meyer, H.E., "Latins, Muslims and Greeks in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem." History 63 (1978), 175-92

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan, "Government in Latin Syria and the Commercial Privileges of Foreign Merchants." in Relations Between East and West in the Middle Ages. Edited by Derek Baker, 109-32. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1973.

    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. "A Note on the Confraternities in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem." Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 44 (1971), 301-08.

    *Robbert, Louise Buenger. "Venice and the Crusades." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. V The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. 379-451, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Prawer, Joshua. "The Venetians and the Venetian Colonies in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem." in Joshua Prawer, Crusader Institutions. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

    Pryor, John H. Commerce, Shipping and Naval Warfare in the Medieval Mediterranean. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS259. London: Variorum, 1987.
    Contents: The working method of a 13th-century French notary; The origins of the Commenda contract; Mediterranean commerce in the middle ages; Commenda: the operation of the contract in long-distance commerce at Marseilles during the 13th century; The transportation of horses by sea during the era of the crusades; The naval battles of Roger of Lauria; The naval architecture of Crusader transport ships.

    *Udovitch, Abraham L. "At the Origins of the Western Commenda: Islam, Israel, Byzantium." Speculum 37:2 (1962): 198-207. [Online via JSTOR]

    CRUSADES: EFFECTS WITHIN LATIN EUROPE

    Sources

    Secondary Literature

    $Bull, Marcus. Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade, The Limousin and Gascony c.970-c.1130. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993

    Bull, Marcus. "The Capetian Monarchy and the Early Crusade Movement." Nottingham Medieval Studies 40 (1996)

    $Edbury, Peter W. "Preaching the Crusade in Wales." In England and Germany in the High Middle Ages. Edited by Alfred Haverkamp and Hanna Vollrath. London: German Historical Institute London; Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

    Laborderie. Olivier de. "Richard the Lionheart and the Birth of a National Cult of St George in England." Nottingham Medieval Studies 39 (1995)

    *Lloyd, Simon. English Society and the Crusade, 1216-1307. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.

    $Lloyd, Simon. "`Political Crusades' in England, c. 1215-1217 and c. 1263-1265." In Crusade and Settlement: Papers Read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail. Edited by Peter Edbury. Cardiff, U.K.: University College Cardiff Press; Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Distributed in USA by Humanities Press, 1985.

    $Macquarrie, Alan. Scotland and the Crusades, 1095-1560. Edinburgh: J. Donald, c1985.

    *Tyerman, Christopher. England and the Crusades, 1095-1588, Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1988 ISBN: 0226820122

    CRUSADES: ART

    Sources

    Secondary Literature

    *Barash, Moshe. De imaginatione. English and Latin as Crusader Figural Sculpture in the Holy Land: Twelfth century Examples from Acre, Nazareth and Belvoir Castle. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1971.

    *Boase, T S, R. "Mosaic, Painting, and Minor Arts." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 117-139. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Boase, T S, R. "Ecclesiastical Art." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 165-96. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Camille, Michael. The Gothic Idol: Ideology and Image-making in Medieval Art. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

    *Derbes, Anne. "Crusading Ideology and the Frescoes of S. Maria in Cosmedin." The Art Bulletin 77 (1995): 460-78. [Online via WilsonSelect]

    *Folda, Jaroslav. "Painting and Sculpture in tile Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1099-1291." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 251-80. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Folda, Jaroslav. "Crusader Art and Architecture: A Photographic Survey." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 281-354. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Folda, Jaroslav. Crusader Manuscript Illumination at Saint-Jean d'Acre, 1275-1291. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976.

    $Folda, Jaroslav. Crusader Art in the Twelfth Century. Oxford: BAR, 1982.

    $Folda, Jaroslav. The Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land: 1098-1187. Cambridge: 1995.

    *Folda, Jaroslav. "Art in the Latin East, 1098-1291." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 141-59. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Fox-Friedman, Jeanne. "Messianic Visions: Modena Cathedral and the Crusades." RES 25 (1994): 77-95.

    Glass, Dorothy F. Portals, Pilgrimage, and Crusade in Western Tuscany. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

    *Hazard H. W., ed. The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Vol. 4 of A History of the Crusades. General editor Kenneth M. Setton. Madison WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977.

    *Kitzinger, Ernst. The Art of Byzantium and the Medieval West: Selected Studies. Edited by W. Eugene Kleinbauer. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976.

    Metcalf, D. M. Coinage of the Crusades and the Latin East in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, London, 1983.

    Pesant, Roberto. [Many small articles on crusader numismatics, generally published in Numismatic Circular]

    *Seidel, Linda V. "Holy Warriors: The Romanesque Rider and the Fight Against Islam." In The Holy War. Edited by Thomas Patrick Murphy. 33-77. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1976.

    *Weiss, Daniel H. "Biblical History and Medieval Historiography: Rationalizing Strategies in Crusader Art." MLA 108 (1993), 710-37.

    *Weiss, Daniel H. Art and Crusade in the Age of Saint Louis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-62130-5

    CRUSADES: ARCHITECTURE

    Sources

    Secondary Literature

    *Boase, T S, R. "Architecture and Sculpture." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 69-116. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Boase, T S, R. "Military Architecture in the Crusader States in Palestine and Syria." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 140-65. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Wallace, David J. and T S.R. Boase. "Frankish Greece." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 208-28. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Boase, T S, R. "Rhodes." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 229-50. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Dunlop, Ian. The Cathedrals' Crusade: The Rise of the Gothic Style in France. New York: Taplinger, 1982.

    *Hazard H. W., ed. The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Vol. 4 of A History of the Crusades. General editor Kenneth M. Setton. Madison WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977.

    *Megaw, A. H. S. "Military Architecture." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. IV The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 196-208 Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    $Pringle, Denys et al. The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a Corpus, projected 3 vols., including: Vol I: A-K (excluding Acre and Jerusalem), Cambridge, 1993.

    *Pringle, Denys. "Architecture in the Latin East, 1098-1571." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 160-83. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    CRUSADES: MUSIC

    Sources

    See below for recordings.

    Secondary Literature

    *Crocker, Richard L. "Early Crusade Songs." The Holy War. Edited by Thomas Patrick Murphy. 78-98. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1976.

    Jeffrey, Peter. "The Earliest Christian Chant Repertory Recovered: The Gregorian Witnesses to Jerusalem Chant." Journal of the American Musicological Society 47 (1994), 3-38.

    *Routledge, Michael. "Songs," In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 91-111. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    CRUSADES AND LITERATURE

    Sources

    El Cantar de Mio Cid, ca. 1200

    Poema de mio Cid. Edited with introduction and notes by Colin Smith. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1972.

    The Poem of the Cid. Translated by Lesley Byrd Simpson. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957.

    The Epic of the Cid. Translated, with an introd., by J. Gerald Markley. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill [1977, c1961].

    The Poem of the Cid. Translated by Rita Hamilton and Janet Perry; with an introduction and notes by Ian Michael. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984, c1975.

    Poem of the Cid: a modern translation with notes by Paul Blackburn; edited and with a foreword by George Economou ; introduction by Luis Cortest. Norman : University Of Oklahoma Press, c1998.

    Chanson de Roland

    $The Song of Roland. Translated by Dorothy L. Sayers. Baltimore, Md: Penguin Books 1957.
    There are many other translations.

    *The Song of Roland. Translated by Patricia Terry. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan1992.

    Guillaume de Orange

    The Song of William (La chancun de Guillelme) Translated into verse by Edward Noble Stone. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1951.

    $William, Count of Orange Guillaume d'Orange. Four Old French Epics. Edited by Glanville Price; with an introd. by Lynette Muir; translated by Glanville Price, Lynette Muir, and David Hoggan. London: Dent ; Totowa, N.J. : Rowman and Littlefield, 1975.
    Includes: The Crowning of Louis, The Waggon Train (Charrois de Nimes), The Capture of Orange, The Song of William.

    *William, Count of Orange Guillaume d'Orange. Guillaume d'Orange: Four Twelfth-century Epics. Translated, with an introd. by Joan M. Ferrante. New York, Columbia University Press, 1974.
    Includes: Alsicans, La Moniage de Guillaum.

    *La Chanson de Jérusalem [electronic resource]. Edited by Nigel R. Thorp. The Old French Crusade cycle ; v. 6 . Tuscaloosa. Ala. : University of Alabama Press, c1992. [Online via NetLibrary]

    *La Prise d'Acre. La Mort Godefroi. And, La Chanson des rois Baudoin [electronic resource]. Edited by Peter R. Grillo. The Old French Crusade cycle ; v. 7. Tuscaloosa, Ala. : University of Alabama Press, c1987. [Online via NetLibrary]

    *Villebresmes, Berthault de, 15th cent. La geste du Chevalier au cygne [electronic resource]. Edited by Edmond A. Emplaincourt. The Old French Crusade cycle ; v. 9. Tuscaloosa, Ala. : University of Alabama Press, c1989. [Online via NetLibrary]

    Tasso, Torquato, 1544-1595. Godfrey of Bulloigne: a critical edition of Edward Fairfax's translation of Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata, together with Fairfax's original poems. Edited by Kathleen M. Lea and T. M. Gang. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

    *Tasso, Torquato, 1544-1595. Jerusalem delivered: an English prose version. Translated and edited by Ralph Nash. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1987.

    Tasso, Torquato, 1544-1595Gerusalemme Liberata ("Jerusalem Delivered"). Published 1581 in Parma, Italy. Translated by Edward Fairfax (1560-1635); translation first published in London, 1600. Edited by Henry Morley. New York: 1901.
    Online at http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Tasso/

    Secondary Literature

    *Auerbach, Erich. Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. Ttranslated from the German by Willard R. Trask. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968, c1953.

    *Barber, Richard W. The Knight and Chivalry. 2d ed. Ipswich : Boydell Press, 1974.

    $Crosland, Jessie Raven. The Old French Epic. Oxford: Blackwell, 1951; reprint, New York, Haskell House Publishers, 1971.

    *Crosland, Jessie Raven. Medieval French Literature. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1976.

    $Daniel, Norman. Heroes and Saracens: An Interpretation of the Chansons de Geste. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, c1984.

    Emden, Wolfgang van. Guillaume d'Orange and the Chanson de Deste: Essays Presented to Duncan McMillan in celebration of his seventieth birthday by his friends and colleagues of the Societe Rencesvals. Reading: University of Reading, 1984.

    *Jones, C. Meredith. "The Conventional Saracen of the Songs of Geste." Speculum 17:2 (1942): 201-25. [Online via JSTOR]

    *Jones, George Fenwick. The Ethos of the Song of Roland. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1963.

    *Jordan, William Chester.. "The Representation of the Crusades in the Songs Attributed to Thibaud, Count Palatine of Champagne." Journal of Medieval History  25:1 (1999): 27-34.  [Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    *Mertens, Volker. " Religious Identity in Middle High German Crusader Epics." History of European Ideas 20:4-6 (1995): 851-57.[Online via Elsevier Science Journals]

    $Montgomery, Thomas, Medieval Spanish Epic: Mythic Roots and Ritual Language. University Park: Penn State University Press, 1998 . ISBN 0-271-01738-4

    *Owen, D. D. R. (Douglas David Roy). The Legend of Roland: A Pageant of the Middle Ages. London: Phaidon, 1973 (Distributed in the U.S. by Praeger, New York).

    *Robertson, Howard S. La Chanson de Willame; A Critical Study. Chapel Hill NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1966.

    *Paden, William D. "The Troubadours and the Albigensian Crusade: A Long View." Romance Philology 49: 2 (1995): 168-91. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    *Sautman, Francesca Canade, Diana Conchado, and Giuseppe Carlo Di Scipio, eds, Telling Tales: Medieval Narratives and the Folk Tradition. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998 ISBN 0-312-21131-7

    Sholod, Barton. Charlemagne in Spain: The Cultural Legacy of Roncesvalles. Geneva: Droz, 1966.

    *Throop, Palmer A. "Criticism of Papal Crusade Policy in Old French and Provencal." Speculum 13:3 (1938): 379-412. [Online via JSTOR]

    $Trotter, D. A. Medieval French Literature and the Crusades (1100-1300). Geneve: Librairie Droz, 1988.

    OTHER WESTERN CONTACTS

    Sources

    Bar Sauma (c. 1278-1313):  The Monk of Kublai Khan, Emperor of China; or The History of the Life and Travels of Rabban Sawma, Envoy and Plenipotentiary of the Mongol Khans to the Kings of Europe and Markos who as Yahbh-Allaha III Became Patriarch of the Nestorian Church. Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge,   London: The Religious Track Society, 1928.  [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]

    Christopher Columbus. The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus; being his own log-book, letters and dispatches with connecting narrative drawn from the Life of the Admiral by his son Hernando Colon and other contemporary historians. Edited and translated [from MSS] by J. M. Cohen. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.

    *Dawson, Christopher, ed.. The Mongol Mission: Narratives and Letters of the Franciscan Missionaries in Mongolia and China in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Translated by a nun of Stanbrook Abbey. London: Sheed and Ward, 1955. Reprint, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980.
    [Also published as: Mission to Asia: Narratives and Letters of the Franciscan Missionaries in Mongolia and China in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. New York: Harper & Row, 1966]

        John of Monte Corvino: Letter to the Minister General of the Friars Minor in Rome, c. 1280
        John of Monte Corvino: Report on China, 1305.

    Mandeville, John, Sir. (ca. 1300-1372). The Travels of Sir John Mandeville. With an introduction by Michael Seymour. Exeter: University of Exeter, 1980.

    *Magnussen, Magnus, Vinland Sagas: Norse Discovery of America. Baltimore: Penguin, 1965

    *Polo, Marco, 1254-1323?. The Travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian. Translated by William Marsden, re-ed. by Thomas Wright. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1948.
    -There are many other translations.

    $Mission of Friar William of Rubruck, The His Journey to the Court of the Great Khan Möngke, 1253-1255. Translated by Peter Jackson. Hakluyt Society, 1990. ISBN: 0-90418-029-8

    Secondary Literature

    Abu-Lughod, Janet L. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

    Abu-Lughod, Janet L. The World System in the Thirteenth Century: Dead-end or Precursor? Washington DC: American Historical Association, c1993.

    *Baldwin, Marshall W. "Missions to the East in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. V The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. Edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard. 452-518 Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    Beazley, C. Raymond. "Prince Henry of Portugal and the African Crusade of the Fifteenth Century. " The American Historical Review, Vol. 16, No. 1. (Oct., 1910), pp. 11-23.

    Bentley, Jerry H. Old World Encounters: Cross-cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-modern Times. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

    Frank, Andre Gunder. ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1998.

    $Hamilton, Bernard and C. F. Beckingham, eds. Prester John: The Mongols and the Ten Lost Tribes. London: Variorum, 1996. ISBN: 086078553X
    Contents: The Achievements of Prester John; The Patriarch John of India and Prester John; Prester John's Letter to the Byzantine Emperor Emanuel, with a note by B. Hamilton on Additional Latin Manuscripts of the Letter; Alexander III's Letter to Prester John; Two passages from 'La Prophétie de Hannan, fils d'Isaac'; The Relatio de Davide as a source for Mongol History and the Legend of Prester John; Prester John and the Mongols; Prester John and the Three Kings of Cologne; Prester John and Russia, edited by W.F. Ryan; An Ethiopian Embassy to Europe, c. 1310; Prester John in West Africa; Eldad ha-Dani and Prester John; Continental Drift: Prester John's Progress through the Indies; The Quest for Prester John; A Select Bibliography of Works on Prester John; Index.

    THE AFTERLIFE OF THE CRUSADES

    *Atiya, Aziz S. "The Aftermath of the Crusades." In A History of the Crusades (Editor in Chief, Kenneth Meyer Setton) Vol. III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Edited by Harry W. Hazard. 647-66. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-89.

    *Dixon, Tomas. "An Apology, 900 Years in the Making." Christianity Today (Sep 6 1999): 24. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    *Eisenhower, Dwight. Crusade in Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. (Current ed)

    Figliuolo, Bruce.  "New Evidence Relating to the Condition of Christians in the Holy Land towards the Middle of the Fifteenth Century." Mediterranean Historical Review  5:1 (199?)

    Gilbert, Vivian.  The Romance of the Last Crusade: With Allenby to Jerusalem. New York, 1925.

    *Luttrell, Anthony. "The Military Orders, 1312-1798." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 326-64. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    *Riley-Smith, Jonathan. "Revival and Survival." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 386-91. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    *Parmet, Herbert S. Eisenhower and the American Crusades. New York: Macmillan, 1972.

    *Prawer, Joshua. "The Legacy of an Epoch: A. The Crusades as a Colonial Movement." In The Crusaders' Kingdom: European Colonialism in the Middle Ages, 469-82.New York & Washington: Praeger, 1972.

    *Redman, Harry. The Roland Legend in Nineteenth-century French Literature. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, c1991

    *Sibbery, Elizabeth. "Images of the Crusades in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 365-85. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    *Siberry, Elizabeth. New Crusaders, The Images of the Crusades in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries.
    The Nineteenth Century Series. Brookfield VT: Ashgate, 2000.
    Blurb: The New Crusaders is the first comprehensive study of the use, abuse and development of the crusade image in popular and high culture in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Drawing upon a diverse range of sources, mainly from the British Isles, but with parallels from Western Europe and North America, the author shows the different approaches to the history of the crusading movement and crusade images taken by the historian, composer, artist and author. Contents: Preface; Introduction; Crusade historiography; The crusade ancestor and hero; Travellers and plenipotentiaries; Crusading warfare; First world war; A crusade miscellany; Scott and the crusades; Literature and the crusades; Popular historical fiction and tales for children; Art and the crusades; Music and the crusades; Conclusion; Appendix A: Wiffen's list of English Crusaders; Appendix B: Sir William Hillary's crusade pamphlet; Appendix C: List of works in the Salles des Croisades at Versailles.

    *Sire, H. J. A., The Knights of Malta. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

    $Wright, L.P. "The Military Orders in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Society: The Institutional Embodiment of a Historical Tradition." Past and Present 43 (May, 1969), 34-70.

    *Wright, Rusty. "Christian Retrace Crusader's Steps." Christianity Today (Oct 7 1996): 90. [Online via Infotrac Onefile]

    "CRUSADE" MOVIES

    Drama

    The best place to find information about movies made in the US or Europe is The Internet Movie Database [ http://www.imdb.com/ ]. When vidoetapes or DVDs are available, the IMDb links to Amazon.com's online store. It is much less reliable for films made elsewhere.

    Alexander Nevsky, (1938) USSR, Historical
    Directed by Sergei Eisenstein.
    A movie made as the Soviet Union faced the prospect of a resurgent Nazi Germany. Eisenstein focused on the "Northern Crusades" -- the efforts of the Teutonic Order to spread Latin Christian power in the Baltic and in Russia. It has a famous score by Prokofiev.

    Black Cross (1960) Poland, Historical/Adventure, 175, No rating, Color
    Director: Aleksander Ford
    About the Teutonic knights. Not up to Eisenstein.

    The Black Rose, (1950) US, Historical/Drama
    Directed by Henry Hathaway, with Tyrone Power and Orson Welles

    The Crusades, (1935) US, Historical/Drama, 123, No rating B&W
    Director: Cecil B. DeMille; Cast includes: Loretta Young (Berengaria), Henry Wilcoxon (Richard), Ian Keith (Saladin)
    [From Mediev-l List "Worst Medieval Films" Discussion] - May I nominate Cecil B. De Mille's The Crusades. It is memorable not only for its conflation of all Crusades into one big mess but most especially Loretta Young as Berengaria spending a brief vacation in Saladin's harem. I defy anyone to beat that! Jo Ann.
    -Ah, yes, and with C. Aubrey Smith as "The Hermit", tied to a stake on the Saracens' parapet, arms outstretched, crying"In this sign, you will conquer!!"
    -Pauline Kael notes that "DeMille wilfully garbled every single character and incident".

    King Richard and the Crusaders (1954) US, Historical, 114, No rating, Color
    Director: David Butler; Cast includes: Rex Harrison, George Sanders, Virginia Mayo
    [From Mediev-l List "Worst Medieval Films" Discussion]This is the film with a disguised Saladin sneaking into the Christian camp to cure Richard. Sanders is very unconvincing as Richard. There is also an otherwise unknown cousin of Richard's named Edith Plantagenet (!!!) in love with a mere knight. Certainly a strong contender in any event.

    The Golden Horde, (1951)
    Directed by George Sherman, with Ann Blyth

    Lionheart (1987) US, Adventure, 104 min, Rated PG, Color
    Director: Franklin J. Schaffner; Cast includes: Eric Stoltz

    El Naser Salah el Dine [alt: Saladin] (1963) 175 mins
    Egypt, Historical/Drama (Technicolor), 175 mins. Director Youssef Chahine.
    An Arab movie about Saladin. It is not clear in the movie that Saladin was a Kurd, not an Arab, and he is presented as a prototype of Nasser in calling for Arab unity in order to expel the western intruders. [This is not available via amazon.com, but a widescreen VHS tape with very clear English subtitles is available from Arab Film Distribution http://www.arabfilm.com/index.html ]

    The Mighty Crusaders (1957)Italy, Religious/Historical/Action, 87, No rating, Color
    Director: Carlo Ludovico Bragaglia
    A version of Tasso's poem

    Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975) UK, Historical/Comedy, 90, Rated PG, Color
    Director: Terry Gilliam, Terry Jones; Star; Graham Chapman
    . Meant to be humorous. It is, in parts.

    The Seventh Seal, (1957) Sweden, Drama, 96, No rating B&W
    Director: Ingmar Bergman: Cast includes: Max Von Sydow
    Set in 14th-century Sweden, about a knight returning from a crusade playing a chess game with death. The film made Bergman famous. It is, however, more about post WW II Swedish existentialism than the Crusades.

    Documentaries

    It is often hard to track down documentary titles. Since Films for the Humanities and Sciences allows relatively simple ordering, I have listed its titles separately.

    Biography: Richard the Lionheart, 50 mins
    Available at http://biography.com/ AAE-14129

    *Crusades: The Knights of Christ, 58 mins
    [produced by] Cromwell Productions ; director, Bob Carruthers ; written & produced by Jeremy Freeston.
    Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire, Eng. : Cromwell Productions, Ltd., c1996.

    Foot Soldier: The Medieval Soldier. 50 Mins
    Available at http://biography.com AAE-13912

    In Search of History: The Knights Templar, 50 mins.
    Available at http://biography.com/ AAE-40265

    Medieval Conflict: Faith and Reason. 1: 56 mins. 2: 52 mins. Producer, John Lynch; Written and presented by James Burke.
    A BBC-TV production in cooperation with RKO Pictures. Los Angeles: Churchill Films, 1986. Series: Day the universe changed 2, 3

    Medieval Warfare,
    Three films in which David Chandler surveys various medieval conflicts. Agincourt; The Wars of the Roses; and the Crusades. Available via PBS: Item Code: A3537-WEBHV
    http://shop.pbs.org/cXj4tTPKwJ/products/A3537/

    Films for the Humanities and Sciences

    These films below can be got in videotape from Films for the Humanities and Sciences [http://www.films.com/ ], but they will charge top dollar, and the same film might be available much more cheaply via an online retailer such as Amazon.com: one example [as of October 1999] -- Terry Jones four part series costs $534 at Films for the Humanities, $50 (with a list price of $59) from Amazon.com, and $39.95 at Biography.com. Part of the reason is that Films for the Humanities prices often include public performance rights in the US, but (and this is not legal advice) US Copyright Law specifically allows teachers to show videos, etc. in classroom educational settings with little restriction.

    Acts of Faith: Jewish Civilization in Spain (50 mins, color)
    Item #BVL3989 at FHS

    The Arab World (5x28mins, color)
    The series includes: The Arabs: Who They Are, Who They Are Not, The Historic Memory, The Image of God, The Bonds of Pride, Arabs and the West
    Item #BVL6781 at FHS

    Arabs and the West (28 minutes, color)
    Item #BVL6786 at FHS

    The Bridge: How Islam Saved Western Medicine (50 minutes, color)
    Item #BVL8204 at FHS

    Brother Felix and the Virgin Saint (78 mins, color)
    Item #BVL4237 at FHS

    Byzantium: From Splendor to Ruin (43 mins, color)
    Item #BVL1959 at FHS

    Christians, Jews, and Moslems in Medieval Spain (33 mins, color)
    Item #BVL1958 at FHS
    A co-production of NITRA, S.A., T.V.E. and RAI ; executive producer, Rafael Cortes; produced in cooperation with the Spanish Ministry of Culture. Princeton NJ : Films for the Humanities, 1989. 1 videocassette (52 min.): sd., col. ; 1/2 in.
    UNF MEDIA COLL-1ST DP99 .C43

    The City of God (39 mins, color)
    Item #BVL1955 at FHS

    Cluny: A Light in the Night (53 mins, color)
    Item #BVL8636 at FHS

    Compostela: The Next Step (40 mins, color)
    Item #BVL5121 at FHS

    Crescent and Cross: Rise of Islam and Age of Crusades (59 mins, color)
    Item #BVL8311 at FHS

    Crusader: By Horse to Jerusalem (54 mins, color)
    Item #BVL4294 at FHS

    *The Crusades
    An EAV production. Pleasantville NY : Educational Audio Visual, 1989. 1 videocassette (VHS) (29 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.
    UNF MEDIA RESERVES-24 hr D132-358

    The Crusades (1995) TV-Series: Documentary / War (4x50mins, color)
    Item #BVL7833 at FHS
    Terry Jones presents the history of the medieval religious wars in the middle-east known as the Crusades.
    See Paul Crawford's attack on the series at http://www.the-orb.net/non_spec/BBCX.html

    The Disputation: A Theological debate Between Christians and Jews.
    Item #BVL2798 at FHS
    A presentation of Films for the Humanities & Sciences ; an Electric Rainbow production for Channel 4 ; written by Hyam Maccoby ; producer, Jenny Reeks ; director, Geoffrey Sax. Princeton, N.J. : Films for the Humanities & Sciences, c1991.
    Description: 1 videocassette (64 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.
    UNF MEDIA COLL-1ST BM535 .D525 1991

    Scribes, Scholars, and Saints: The Art of Celtic Manuscripts (3x26 mins)
    The series includes: Ten Gospel Manuscripts, The Book of Durrow, The Book of Kells Item #BVL3055 at FHS
    A presentation of Films for the Humanities & Sciences ; an Ulster Television production;produced and directed by David Taylor Black; written and presented by Dr. George Simms. Princeton NJ : Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 1993. 3 videocassettes (27 min. ea.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.
    UNF MEDIA COLL-1ST ND3137 .S27 1993

    "CRUSADE" MUSIC RECORDINGS

    Music from the Time of the Crusades

    Note: see The Early Music FAQ [ http://www.medieval.org/emfaq] for more disks, track information, and how to order.

    Music of the Crusades: Songs of Love and War
    The Early Music Consort of London - David Munrow, dir. 1970
    London/Decca "Serenata" 430 264-2DM
    Superb early entry into field and still unequalled.

    On the Way to Bethlehem: Music of the Medieval Pilgrim
    Ensemble Oni Wytars / Ensemble Unicorn
    Naxos 8.553132
    An interesting and hugely enjoyable, if historically dubious, recording. The conceit is that of the overland journey of crusaders and pilgrims to Bethlehem and the sort of music they would have heard on the way. Thus English, French and, German art songs are mixed with traditional music performed on "period-similar" instruments. The music in question is Croatian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Turkish, and Syrian music

    Croisade - Musiques vocales et instrumentales
    Alfons X (El Sabio), Conon de Béthune, et al.
    Orchestra: Concert dans l'Oeuf, La Compagnie Medievale, et al.
    Solstice - #155

    Crusaders in nomine domini
    Estampie, Münchner Ensemble für frühe Musik - Michael Popp, dir.
    Christophorus CHR 77 183
    The CD has a theme with one track following from the other. It is based on Crusade texts (which are given in original language and German translation), but the music is very modern and New Age-y (compare the "Hildegard" recordings by Richard Souther.) It cannot be used in class to indicate anything about crusade era music. On the other hand, some listeners may enjoy the renditions, phony as they are.

    Musiques Croisées: Orient-Occident XIIe-XIIIe siècles
    Ensemble Isengrin
    Studio SM "Viva Voce" D 2775, 1999
    [A recording which stresses Arabic influence on western music, even though the liner notes agree that such interpretations are extremely questionable.]

    Jerusalem: Vision of Peace: Songs and Plainchants of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries
    Gothic Voices - Christopher Page
    Hyperion 67039 1998
    The entire CD focuses on the crusades, with extensive notes, texts and English translation. Three of the tracks (5, 12, 16) are explicitly anti-Semitic, one relates to the loss of Jerusalem to Saladin (14), and another stresses the crusade as a pilgrimage (7). Tracks 9-11 are from a graduale of 1128-30 written in the workshop of the Holy Sepulcher and used for the Mass of Easter Day in that Church - the central reason for the existence of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. The disk contains a quite beautiful rendition of the plainchant Te Deum -- the great Latin chant for victory. For teaching purposes this is by far the best choice.

    Chanterai: Music of Medieval France
    Sonus Ensemble
    Dorian Discovery 80123
    Contains at least one crusade song -- Guiot de Dijon's Chanterai pour mon coraige [also on the Jerusalem: Vision of Peace CD.

    Music for the Lion-Hearted King [c.1200]
    Gothic Voices - Christopher Page
    Hyperion 66336
    12th century conducti - mostly French -- recorded in commemoration of the coronation of Richard the Lionheart.

    Ludovicus Rex: Estraits des Offices de l'adoration de Saint Louis
    Choeur Gregorian de Paris - 1996
    Disques Pierre Verany PV797082
    Recordings made at the Sainte Chapelle of various texts for the feast day of St. Louis (King Louis IX) on August 25. The texts emphasize Louis as a biblical king and as a standard bearer of the cross.

    Montségur: La tragédie cathare
    La Nef - Sylvain Bergeron
    Dorian 90243
    As the disk notes say, no information on Cathar music survives, so this is an "original musical realization" for voice and early instruments based on medieval sources and reflecting the idea of "opposition": Good v. Evil: North v. South; Crusaders v. a Martyred people; the Church of Rome v. the Perfecti. The disk notes are informative about what is intended and texts are given both in original form and with English translation. One commentator was extremely negative about the recording -- "Dreadful. The music is mediocre; the notes extremely misleading and are of the Grail/Templar-myth variety, with very little relationship to fact. This is not history but rather fantasy - it belongs in a class with the book Holy Blood, Holy Grail."

    Minnesänger und Spielleute/ Minnesong and Minstrels
    Studio der frühen Musik - Thomas Binkley 1988 [rec'd 1966, 1968]
    Teldec "Das Alte Werk - Reference" 8.44015 ZS
    [A CD combination of two LP recordings: Minnesänger und Spruchdichtung/ Music and Prosody (ca.1200-1320) (tracks 1-14) and Musik der Spielleute/ Music of the Minstrels (tracks 15-23). Track three is Walther Von der Vogelweide's Palästinalied -- "Nu alrest lebe ich mir werde" ("Now my life is elevated") -- possibly composed for the crusade of 1228.]

    Music from the Court of King Janus at Nicosia (1374-1432)
    Huelgas Ensemble - Paul Van Nevel, 1993
    Sony Vivarte 53976
    Instrumental and vocal music of the Ars Subtilior was developped in the French court in Cyprus. It survived in one manuscript, now in Turin.

    The Island of St. Hylarion: Music of Cyprus: 1413-1422
    Ensemble Project Ars Nova
    New Albion 038
    The Cypriot manuscript of c.1413-22 (Turin. Bib.Naz. J.II.9) is the focus of this recording as also the one above. The manuscript represents the output of one royal chapel's musical resources at one period and is a witness to the efforts of King Janus to develop polyphonic music for his court. It contains several mass cycles, offices for St. Hylarion and St. Anne, 41 motets, 43, virelais, and 21 rondeaux. Apart from the Latin of the liturgical texts, many of the works are in French. The singing and musicianship of the recording is admirable, although Amazon.com customers seem to see it as "soothing" in the style of Chant!

    Chants épiques et populaires de Chypre/ Epic and Popular Songs from Cyprus
    Ensemble cypriote de musique ancienne/Cypriot Early Music Ensemble -- Michaël Christodoulides 1982
    Arion 64182
    A recording of different types of traditional Cypriot songs with the claim that they represent a melding of Middle-Easten, Byzantine, and Western Medieval traditions to produce "Kypraphony" (a "Cypriot Voice") which is neither oriental nor the same as continental Greek voices. This music is an especially interesting to the Court music of the previous two items. The CD includes an Akritic "Tale of the Saracen," local epic songs, a love song, "The Legend of St. George," "Myroloyi" -- a song of lamentation, and another Akritic song, "The Tale of the Crab." The notes summarize the music and the stories of the songs, but do not give either texts or translations.

    Les croisades sous le regard de L'Orient / The Crusades seen through the Eyes of the Orient
    Omar Sarmini  - Ensemble Al-Kindi - 2001
    Le Chant du Monde 5741118/5741119 [Distributed by Harmonia Mundi]
    ["Arab music and poetry from the time of the Crusades. A tribute to the Syrian prince Usama Ibn Mundiqh." This a a two CD set with extensive notes and translations in both French and English.]

    1492 - Music From the Age of Discovery
    Waverly Consort - Michael Jaffee, 1992
    EMI Reflexe 54506
    Has some non-Medieval electronic variations at the end, but much of it is very good; includes music relevant to the end of the Reconquista and Columbus' voyages, which were partly inspired by a desire to revive and continue crusading.

    Music Inspired by the Crusades

    Meyerbeer. Il Crociato in Egitto (1826)

    Rossini. Count Ory (1828)

    Giuseppe Verdi. I Lombardi alla prima Crociata (1843)
    The opera that first secured Verdi's position. [Available in multiple recorded versions.]

    Giuseppe Verdi. Aroldo (1857)

    MISCELLANEOUS

    [Important texts and secondary studies in languages other than English]

    Alphandéry, P. (Paul) and Alphonse Dupront. La chrétienté et l'idee de croisade. Postface de Michel Balard. Paris : A. Michel, 1995 (original ed. 2 vols. Paris, 1954, 1959).
    Important work advocating the "lemming" theory of the crusades.

    'Imad al-Din al-Isfahani. Conquête de la Syrie et de la Palestine par Saladin. French translation by H. Massé (1972)

    Meyer, Paul. La chanson de la croisade contre les Albigeois, commencee par Guillaume de Tudele et continuee par un poete anonyme, editee et traduite pour la Societe de l'histoire de France par Paul Meyer. Paris: Libraire Renouard, 1879.

    Recueil des historiens des Croisades. 16 Vols. Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1841-1906. Historiens occidentaux. t. 1-5, 1844-95.-- ; Historiens orientaux, t. 1-5, 1872-1906.-- ; Documents armeniens. t. 1-2,1869-1906.; Historiens grecs, t. 1-2, 1875-81.; Lois. Assises de Jerusalem ... t. 1-2, 1841-43. Reissued in photofacsimilie, Farnborough (Hants.): Gregg Press, 1967-, 5 ser. in 16 v. in plates (maps) 33 cm.
    [This is the major collection of crusade texts. For the most part they are edited in original languages and have a modern French translation below the text.]

    Richard, Jean. Croisés, Missionaires et Voyageurs Perspectives Orientales du Monde Latin Médiéval. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS182. London: Variorum, 1983. ISBN: 0-86078-130-5
    Contents: Avante-propos; Philippe Auguste, la croisade et le royaume; Hospitals and hospital congregations in the Latin kingdom; Les Templiers et les Hospitaliers en Bourgogne et en Champagne (XIIe–XIIIe s.); Huon de Tabarié; Eglise latine et églises orientales dans les états des Croisés; La Féodalité de l’Orient latin et le mouvement communal; Le peuplement latin et syrien en Chypre au XIIIe s.; Une économie coloniale? Chypre; Le droit et les institutions franques en Chypre; Une famille de "Vénitiens blancs" en Chypre; Les causes des victories monogles d’après les historiens occidentaux de XIIIe s.; La lettre de Saint Louis à Sartaq; Une ambassade mongole à Paris en 1262; Les Mongols et l’Occident; Chrétiens et Mongols au concile; Les papes d’Avignon et l’évangélisation du monde non-latin; Le discours missionaire; L’enseignment des langues orientales en Occident; Les gens de mer; Voyages réels et voyages imaginaires; louis de Bologne, patriarch d’Antioche; Index.

    Richard, Jean. Croisades et Etats latins d'Orient: Points de vue et documents. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS383. London: Variorum, 1992. ISBN: 0-86078-340-5
    Contents: Préface; La Société de l'Orient latin racontée par son fondateur; Urbain II, la prédication de la croisade et la définition de l'indulgence; Départs de pèlerins et de croisés bouguignons au XIe s.: à propos d'une charte de Cluny; Les Saint-Gilles et le comté de Tripoli; L'arrière-plan historique des deux cycles de la croisade; La croisade de 1270, premier "passage général"?; Le transport outre-mer des croisés et des pèlerins (XIIe - XVe s.); Le pouvoir franc en Méditerranée orientale; La noblesse de Terre-Sainte (1097-1187); Les turcoples au service des royaumes de Jérusalem et de Chypre: musulmans convertis ou chrétiens orientaux?; Les comtes de Tripoli et leurs vassaux sous la dynastie antiochénienne; The establishment of the Latin Church in the Empire of Constantinople (1207(1224); La lettre du connétable Smbat et les rapports entre Chrétiens et Mongols au milieu du XIIIe s.; Un monastère grec de Palestine et son domaine chypriote: le monachisme orthodoxe et l'établissement de la domination franque; Les comptes du collecteur de la Chambre Apostolique dans le royaume de Chypre (1357-1363); Le royaume de Chypre et l'embargo sur le commerce avec l'Egypte (fin XIIIe - début XIVe s.); La cour des Syriens de Famagouste d'après un texte de 1448; Culture franque et culture grecque: dans le royaumes d'Arménie et de Chypre au XVe s.; La diplomatique royale dans les royaumes d'Arménie et de Chypre (XIIe-XVe s.); A propos d'un privilège de Jean II de Lusignan: Un enquête sur les modalités de la mise en forme des actes royaux; Index
    .

    CRUSADE WEBSITES

    About.com Crusades, ed. Melissa Snell
    http://historymedren.miningco.com/education/history/historymedren/msubcrus.htm

    As a company, About.com does some very annoying things, but its medieval studies guide is admirable -- Melissa Snell keeps a close eye for useful crusade (and other medieval) materials.

    Internet Medieval Sourcebook: Crusades, ed. Paul Halsall
    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1k.html

    Links to and mounts online primary sources about the crusades.

    ORB: Crusades, ed. Paul Crawford.
    http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/crusades/crusade.html

    ORB: Military Orders, ed. Paul Crawford
    http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/religion/monastic/milindex.html

    Contains online texts and some secondary articles.

    Skip Knox, Crusades Course Online
    http://crusades.boisestate.edu/index.html
    The Contents Page is probably the most useful starting point.

    Peter Edbury Homepage
    http://www.cf.ac.uk/uwcc/hisar/people/pe/pe.html

    Homepage of one of the foremost scholars of the crusades.

    Reconciliation Walk
    http://www.reconciliationwalk.org/

    Well designed page for people who want to "apologize" for the crusades. In fact, this site shows no historical awareness whatsoever, and makes no attempt to understand the motives of the crusaders -- they are seen as simply violent fanatics lead by a corrupt and greedy clergy. In making this judgement, the site's authors make statements about medieval religious belief that make it clear that they share no common beliefs with the medieval people who actually went on crusade. This being the case, it is hard to see how the modern authors have any standing to "apologize."

    SSCLE: Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, ed. Michael Markowski
    http://www.wcslc.edu/pers_pages/m-markow/ssclehome.html

    CONTENTS OF MAJOR COLLECTIVE WORKS

    Variorum Collections: a very useful -- if expensive -- series of collected articles is published by Ashgate (formerly Variorum). The collections have the dual role of bringing together articles by the same author, or around the same theme, and of making accessible articles which were published in often hard to find journals and festschriften. The content of these volumes, where known, is listed with the book in the general bibliography above.

    *The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. "The Crusading Movement and Historians." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 2-12. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Bull, Marcus. "Origins." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 13-33. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Lloyd, Simon. "The Crusading Movement, 1096-1274." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 34-65. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. "The Minds of Crusaders to the East, 1095-1300." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 66-90. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Routledge, Michael. "Songs," In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 91-111. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Phillips, Jonathan. "The Latin East, 1098-1291." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 112-40. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Folda, Jaroslav. "Art in the Latin East, 1098-1291." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 141-59. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Pringle, Denys. "Architecture in the Latin East, 1098-1571." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 160-83. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Forey, Alan, "The Military Orders, 1120-1312." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 184-216. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Irwin, Robert. "Islam and the Crusades, 1096-1699." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 217-59. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Housley, Norman. "The Crusading Movement, 1274-1700." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 260-93. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Edbury, Peter. "The Latin East, 1291-1669." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 294-325. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Luttrell, Anthony. "The Military Orders, 1312-1798." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 326-64. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Sibbery, Elizabeth. "Images of the Crusades in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 365-85. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    Riley-Smith, Jonathan. "Revival and Survival." In The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, ed. Jonathan Riley-Smith. 386-91. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

    $Bartlett, Robert, and Angus MacKay, eds, Medieval Frontier Societies Oxford: Clarendon, 1990 ISBN: 0198228813

    $Goss, Vladimir P. and Christine Verzar Bornstein, eds. The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange between East and West during the Period of the Crusades. Kalamazoo, Mich.: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1986.

    *Setton, Kenneth Meyer, ed.-in-chief. A History of the Crusades, 6 vols, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, Wis., 1969-89. Online at http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/HistCrusades 

*Vol. I The First Hundred Years, edited by Marshall W. Baldwin.

I. Painter. Sidney. "Western Europe on the Eve of the Crusades." 3-30

II Conflict in the Mediterranean before the First Crusade

A. Wheeler, Benjamin W. "The Reconquest of Spain before 1095." 31-39

B. Krueger, Hilmar C. "The Italian Cities and the Arabs before 1095." 40-53

C. Lopez, Robert S. "The Norman Conquest of Sicily." 54-67

D. Runciman, Steven. "The Pilgrimages to Palestine before 1095." 68-80

III Gibb, Hamilton A. R. "The Caliphate and the Arab States." 81-99

IV Lewis, Bernard. "The Isma'ilites and the Assassins." 99-134

V Cahen, Claude. "The Turkish Invasion: The Selchükids." 135-76

VI Charanis, Peter. "The Byzantine Empire in the Eleventh Century." 177-219

VII Duncalf, Frederic. "The Councils of Piacenza and Clermont." 220-254

VIII Duncalf, Frederic. "The First Crusade: Clermont to Constantinople." 253-79

IX Runciman, Steven. "The First Crusade: Constantinople to Antioch." 280-307

X Runciman, Steven. "The First Crusade: Antioch to Ascalon." 308-42

XI Cate, James Lea. "The Crusade of 1101." 343-67

XII Fink, Harold S., "The Foundation of the Latin States, 1099-1118." 368-409

XIII Nicholson, Robert L. "The Growth of the Latin States, 1118-1144." 410-48

XIV Gibb, Hamilton A. R. "Zengi and the Fall of Edessa." 449-63

XV Berry. Virginia G. "The Second Crusade." 463-512

XVI Gibb, Hamilton A. R. "The Career of Nur-ad-Din." 513-27

XVII Baldwin, Marshall W. "The Latin States under Baldwin III and Amalric I, 1143-1174." 528-62

XVIII Gibb, Hamilton A. R. "The Rise of Saladin, 1169-1189." 563-89

XIX Baldwin, Marshall W. "The Decline and Fall of Jerusalem, 1174-1189." 590-621

*Vol. 2. The Later Crusades, 1189-1311, edited by R. L. Wolff and Harry W. Hazard.

I Wiruszowski, Helene. "The Norman Kingdom of Sicily and the Crusades." 3-44

II Painter, Sidney. "The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionhearted and Philip Augustus." 45-87

III Johnson, Edgar N. "The Crusades of Frederick Barbarossa and Henry VI." 87-122

IV Hussey, Joan M. "Byzantium and the Crusades, 1081-1204." 123-54

V McNeal, Edgar H. and Robert Lee Wolf. "The Fourth Crusade." 153-87

VI Wolf, Robert Lee. "The Latin Empire of Constantinople, 1204-l261." 187-234

VII Longnon, Jean. "The Frankish States in Greece, 1204-1311." 235-76

VIII Evans, Austin P. "The Albigensian Crusade." 277-324

IX Zacour, Norman P. "The Children's Crusade." 325-43

X Strayer, Joseph R. "The Political Crusades of the Thirteenth Century." 343-77

XI Van Cleve, Thomas C. "The Fifth Crusade." 377-428

XII Van Cleve, Thomas C. "The Crusade of Frederick II." 429-63

XIII Painter, Sydney. "The Crusade of Theobald of Champagne and Richard of Cornwall, 1239-1241." 463-87

XIV Strayer, Joseph R. "The Crusades of Louis IX." 487-521

XV Hardwicke, Mary Nickerson. "The Crusader States, 1192-1243." 522-56

XVI Runciman, Steven. "The Crusader States, 1243-1291." 557-99

XVII Furber, Elizabeth Chapin. "The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1191-1291." 599-629

XVIII Der Nersessian, Sirarpie. "The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia." 630-60

XIX Cahen, Claude. "The Turks in Iran and Anatolia before the Mongol Invasions." 661-92

XX Gibb, Hamilton A. R.. "The Aiyubids." 693-714

XXI Cahen, Claude. "The Mongols and the Near East." 715-34

XXII Ziada, Mustafa M. "The Mamluk Sultans to 1293." 735-58

*Vol. 3. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, edited by Harry W. Hazard.

I Atiya, Aziz S. "The Crusade in the Fourteenth Century." 3-26

II Geanakoplos, Deno. "Byzantium and the Crusades, 1261-1354." 27-68

III Geanakoplos, Deno. "Byzantium and the Crusades, 1354-1453." 69-103

IV Topping, Peter. "The Morea, 1311-1364." 104-40

V Topping, Peter. "The Morea, 1364-1460." 141-66

VI Setton, Kenneth M. "The Catalans in Greece, 1311-1380." 167-224

VII Setton, Kenneth M. "The Catalans and Florentines in Greece, 1380-1462." 225-77

VIII Luttrell. Anthony. "The Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1306-1421." 278-313

IX Rossi, Ettore. "Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1421-1523." 314-39

X Luke, Harry. "The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1291-1369." 340-60

XI Luke, Harry. "The Kingdom of Cyprus, 1369-1489." 361-95

XII Bishko, Charles Julian. "The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest, 1095-1492." 396-456
Online at http://libro.uca.edu/bishko/spr1.htm

XIII Hazard, Harry. "Moslem North Africa, 1049-1394." 457-85

XIV Ziada, Mustafa M. "The Mamluk Sultans, 1291-1517." 486-512

XV Sinor, Denis. "The Mongols and Western Europe." 513-44

XVI Johnson, Edgar N. "The German Crusade on the Baltic." 545-85

XVII Heymann, Frederick G. "The Crusades against the Hussites." 586-646

XVIII Atiya, Aziz S. "The Aftermath of the Crusades." 647-66

*Vol. 4. The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States, edited by Harry W. Hazard.

I Holmes, Urban Tignor. "Life among the Europeans in Palestine and Syria in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries." 3-35

II Savage, Henry L. "Pilgrimages and Pilgrim Shrines in Palestine and Syria after 1095." 36-68

III Ecclesiastical Art in the Crusader States in Palestine and Syria

A. Boase, T S, R. "Architecture and Sculpture." 69-116

B. Boase, T S, R. "Mosaic, Painting, and Minor Arts." 117-139

IV Boase, T S, R. "Military Architecture in the Crusader States in Palestine and Syria." 140-65

V The Arts in Cyprus

A. Boase, T S, R. "Ecclesiastical Art." 165-96

B. Megaw, A. H. S. "Military Architecture." 196-208

VI The Arts in Frankish Greece and Rhodes

A. Wallace, David J. and T S.R. Boase. "Frankish Greece." 208-28

B. Boase, T S, R. "Rhodes." 229-50

VII Folda, Jaroslav. "Painting and Sculpture in tile Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1099-1291." 251-80

Folda, Jaroslav. "Crusader Art and Architecture: A Photographic Survey." 281-354

*Vol. 5. The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East, edited by Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard.

I Faris, Nabih Amin. "Arab Culture in the Twelfth Century." 3-32

II Hitti, Philip Khuri. "The Impact of the Crusades on Moslem Lands." 33-58

III Prawer, Joshua. "Social Classes in the Crusader States: the 'Minorities.'" 59-116

IV Prawer, Joshua. "Social Classes in the Latin Kingdom: the Franks." 117-92

V Richard, Jean. "The Political and Ecclesiastical Organization of the Crusader States." 193-250

VI Richard, Jean. "Agricultural Conditions in the Crusader States." 251-95

VII Russell, Josiah C. "The Population of the Crusader States." 295-315

VIII Sterns, Indrikis. "The Teutonic Knights in the Crusader States." 315-79

IX Robbert, Louise Buenger. "Venice and the Crusades." 379-451

X Baldwin, Marshall W. "Missions to the East in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries." 452-518

$Vol 6. The Impact of the Crusades on Europe.

$#Gervers, Michael, and James M. Powell, eds. Tolerance and Intolerance: Social Conflict in the Age of the Crusades. (Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 2001)

Contents: 
David Hay. "Gender Bias and Religious Intolerance in Accounts of the "Massacres" of the First Crusade." 3-10.
Yaacov Lev. "Prisoners of War During the Fatimid-Ayyubid Wars with the Crusaders." 11-27.
Ciulio Cipollone. "From Intolerance to Tolerance: The Humanitarian Way, 1187-1216." 28-40.
James W. Brodman. "The Rhetoric of Ransoming: A Contribution to the Debate over Crusading in Medieval Iberia." 41-52.
James D. Ryan. "Toleration Denied: Armenia between East and West in the Era of the Crusades." 55-64.
Paul L. Sidelko. "Muslim Taxation under Crusader Rule." 65-74.
Reuven Amitai. "Edward of England and Abagha Ilkhan: A Reexamination of a Failed Attempt at Mongol-Frankish Cooperation." 75-82.
Adam Knobler. "Crusading for the Messiah: Jews as Instruments of Christian Anti-Islamic Holy War." 83-89..
Annette Ilieva. "Images of Tolerance and Intolerance in Cypriot Historical Writings Between the Thirteenth and Sixteenth Centuries." 93-99.
Andrew Jotischky. "The Frankish Encounter with the Greek Orthodox in the Crusader States: The Case of Gerard of Nazareth and Mary Magdalene." 100-14.
James Muldoon. "Tolerance and Intolerance in the Medieval Canon Lawyers." 117-23.
Rainer Christoph Schwinges. "William of Tyre, the Muslim Enemy, and the Problem of Tolerance." 124-32.

$Phillips, Jonathan, ed. The First Crusade: Origins and Impact. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997. ISBN: 0719049857

$Edbury, Peter, ed. Crusade and Settlement: Papers Read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail. Cardiff, U.K.: University College Cardiff Press; Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Distributed in USA by Humanities Press, 1985.

$Holt, P. M. ed. The Eastern Mediterranean Lands in the Period of the Crusades. Warminster, England: 1977.

$Kedar, Benjamin Z., H.E. Mayer, R.C. Smail, eds. Outremer: Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem Presented to Joshua Prawer. Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Institute, 1982.

*Murphy, Thomas Patrick, ed. The Holy War. Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Studies (5th: 1974: Ohio State University). Columbus: Ohio State University Press, c1976.
Contents:

Cowdrey, H. E. J. "The Genesis of the Crusades: The Springs of Western Ideas of Holy War." 9-32

Seidel, Linda V. "Holy Warriors: The Romanesque Rider and the Fight Against Islam." 33-77

Crocker, Richard L. "Early Crusade Songs." 78-98

Brundage, James A. "Holy War and the Medieval Lawyers." 99-140

Watt, W. Montgomery. "Islamic Conceptions of the Holy War." 141-56

Greene, Thomas M. "Renaissance Warfare: A Metaphor in Conflict." 157-80

$Shatzmiller, Maya, ed. Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-Century Syria, Leiden: Brill, 1993. ISBN: 9004097775

*Studies in Medieval Cistercian History. Presented to Jeremiah F. O'Sullivan. Shannon: Irish University Press, 1971.
Contents: O'Callaghan, J. F. Preface.--Donnelly, J. S. Dedication.--Lackner, B. K. The liturgy of early Citeaux.-- Sommerfeldt, J. R. The social theory of Bernard of Clairvaux.--Constable, G. A report of a lost sermon by St. Bernard on the failure of the second crusade.--Brundage, J. A. A transformed angel (X 3.31.18): the problem of the crusading monk.--O'Callaghan, J. F. The order of Calatrava and the archbishops of Toledo, 1147-1245.-- Buczek, D. S. "Pro defendendis ordinis": the French Cistercians and their enemies.--Hays, R. W. The Welsh monasteries and the Edwardian conquest.--Desmond L. A. The statute of Carlisle and the Cistercians, 1298- 1369.--Telesca, W. J. The Cisterican dilemma at the close of the Middle Ages: Gallicanism or Rome.--Volz, C. Martin Luther's attitude toward Bernard of Clairvaux.--Bibliography of studies by Jeremiah F. O'Sullivan (p. 205)

$Tolan, John Victor, ed. Medieval Christian Perceptions of Islam: A Book of Essays. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, vol. 1768. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-815-31426-4.

Contents [titles not exact].
John C. Lamoreaux, "Early Eastern Christian Responses to Islam."
David Bundy, "Syriac and Armenian Christian Responses to the Islamification of the Mongols."
Craig L. Hanson, "Manuel I Comnenus and the 'God of Mohammed': A Study in Byzantine Ecclesiastical Politics."
Kenneth Baxter Wolf , "Spanish Anti-Muslim Polemic: Eighth to Twelfth Centuries."
Thomas E. Burman "'Tathlith al-wahdaniyah' and the Twelfth-Century Andalusian-Christian approach to Islam."
David Burr, "Theological Responses to Islam: Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries." Philip Krey. "Nicholas of Lyra, Paul of Burgos and Juan of Segovia."
John Philip Lomax . "Frederick II, His Saracens, and the Papacy."
William Patrick Hyland, "Edition and translation of John-Jerome of Prague's Miraculum noviter factum (c.1430)" -- trial and vindication of falselyaccused Christian merchants traveling in Arabia.
Geert H. M. Claassens. " Jacob van Maerlant."
Gloria Allaire. "Portrayal of Muslims in Andrea de Barberino's Guerrino il Meschino."
Frank Grady's "'Machomete' and Mandeville's Travels."
John S. Geary. "Gonzalo de Arrendondo y Alvarado."
Rhona Zaid. "as Guerras civiles de Granada (c.1568)."
Palmira Brummett's "Myth of Shah Ismail Safavi: Political Rhetoric and 'Divine' Kingship."

JOURNALS/PERIODICALS   [Availability at UNF]

Much important work in history is published in historical journals. Some of these articles will need to be ordered by UNF students through Interlibrary Loan [ILL]. Students, especially graduate students with big yet narrowly defined projects, may also find it profitable to make at least one trip to the much greater library facilities available at the University of Florida in Gainesville.

Here is a list of locally available journals relevant to medieval history. Unless otherwise noted, journals are shelved on the 3rd floor of the Carpenter Library.

American Historical Review E171 .A57
full run [Available online via JSTOR]

English Historical Review DA20 .E58
full run [Available online via JSTOR]

The Historian D1 .H22
from v.29- (1966/1967-)

History [London] D1 .H815
full run

History [Washington] Z6205 .H69
full run

History and Theory D1 .H8173
full run

History of Childhood Quarterly D16.16 .J68
only vols 1-3

History of Religions BL1 .H5
microfilm v.11-v.17 (1971/1972-1977/1978)
bound volumes: v.18-v.23:no.4 (1978:Aug.-1984:May)

History Today D1 .H818 [Recent years available online via Infotrac Onefile]
full run

Journal of Economic History HC10 .J64
full run, microfilmed to vol 32 (1972) [Available online via JSTOR]

Journal of Early Christian Studies BR66 .J68
From v.7- (1999:spring-)

Journal of Homosexuality HQ75 .J68
full run

Journal of Interdisciplinary History D1 .J59
full run

Past and Present D1 .P37
Only from No. 126 (1990/Feb)

Radical History Review HX1 .R33
only from 1985

Signs: A Journal of Women and Society HQ1101 .S5
full run

Speculum PN661 .S6
full run [Available online via JSTOR]

Traditio D111.T7 4th Floor
only from vol. 40 (1984).

Viator CB3.V53 4th Floor
only v.1-v.6 v.9

 

 

 

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