Welcome to www.dchp.ca, the virtual home
Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles and Bank of Canadian English
Funding for the DCHP-2 has been provided by the following institutions:
University of Vienna, Austria
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, (2007/8 and 2010/11 funding competitions)
Canada Summer Jobs
The Faculty of Arts at the University of British Columbia
The Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles was edited by Avis, Walter S. (ed.-in-chief), C. Crate, P. Drysdale, D. Leechman, M. H. Scargill, C. J. Lovell and published in 1967 by W. J. Gage Limited. Meanwhile, more than 40 years have passed and some of the inevitable oversights and errors in the first edition were joined by close to half a century of Canadian history that is left undocumented. This period saw the rise of such ubiquitous Canadianisms as GST, grow-op, loonie, murder ball, Nanaimo bar, notwithstanding clause, and seat sale, as well as more confined, specialist and regional terms such as bachelor, lotus land, and pure laine. The time is ripe for a second, fully revised and extended edition of the DCHP, which is the aim of the DCHP-2 Project at the University of British Columbia (see above for our supporting institutions).
Planning for this project commenced in 2005 after the Canadian English in the Global Context Conference, held in honour of J.K. Chambers.
The project entered a pilot study phase in March 2006 and relocated to the Department of English at the University of British Columbia in August 2006. In 2011, the first edtion was fully digitized (Dollinger 2011) and was released in March 2013 in open access (see below). We are currently editing the new edition DCHP-2 (Dollinger, Brinton and Fee. In prep.), which we expect to finish in December 2015.
DCHP-1: a brief history
The DCHP-1 was conceived in 1954 at the inaugural meeting of the Canadian Linguistic Association. Its completion, which coincided with Canada's centennial celebration in 1967, testified not only to the highly successful start of Canadian historical lexicography, but of Canadian English lexicography in general, as it served as the backdrop of the first truly Canadian English dictionary series. The public's response to the DCHP-1 and its echo in the press, both pre- and post-publication was very favourable, even enthusiastic. An impressive number of reviews in newspapers and magazines, both domestic and international (cf. entries in Avis and Kinloch 1977), as well as congratulatory notes from competing publishers, testify to the warm reception of DCHP-1. Jess Stein, the president of Random House at the time, called the DCHP-1 "a real landmark in English lexicography" (1 Dec. 1967), and Sidney Landau, then editor-in-chief of Funk & Wagnall's dictionaries, wondered, "now that we have it [the DCHP] I cannot imagine how we managed to get along so long without it" (29 Nov. 1967). In combination with the high regard the DCHP-1 has held within linguistic circles (Raven I. McDavid defended the DCHP-1 in a 1970 review), it must be considered a veritable success.
At the same time, spin-off publications based on the DCHP-1, such as the Gage Senior Dictionary, were being adopted by Canadian publishers as their in-house reference tool (e.g. The Telegram newspaper, Toronto). In a review of a different work on Canadian English, no less a dialect scholar than Raven I. McDavid both praised the DCHP and, from today's perspective somewhat ironically, pointed to its ongoing updating and revision process, which was meant to set the DCHP apart from comparable dictionaries (see McDavid 1970:289).
Almost 40 years and not a single update later, we can say that this goal has not been met; we still only have the first edition (the sudden death of the editor-in-chief, Walter S. Avis, in 1979 is a likely reason). Through the acquisition of Gage by Nelson Education, however, we are now in the position to open a new chapter in Canadian English historical lexicography.
Access DCHP-1 Online, which was realeased in open access on March 11, 2013: http://dchp.ca/DCHP-1
DCHP-2: aims of the project
There are a number of reasons why a second edition of the DCHP is desirable: First, a revision would update the work for the twenty-first century by adding about half a century of Canadian word history. Second, any revision would need to remedy the biggest gaps of the DCHP-1 through correcting (and possibly purging) misconceived and outdated entries, updating etymologies, and improving on definitions. Third, a new DCHP can take advantage of the developments in information technology and be published, besides a print edition, as a database, which would allow for multiple uses.
Time horizon: seven years (2007-2013) for a complete revision, depending on funding (publication in 2014). We are seeking funding for the first three-year period with the goal to produce an Online revision that provides a complete update (post-1967 entries) and corrects the most important oversights in DCHP-1. DCHP-2 will be an important step towards a complete revised edition.
|DCHP-2 and some of its tasks|||Top||
While the DCHP-1 is a well-conceived and carefully edited dictionary, the following issues are among the improvements considered in a new edition:
Stefan Dollinger (University of British Columbia, Vancouver)
Laurel J. Brinton (University of British Columbia, Vancouver)
Fee (University of British Columbia, Vancouver)
J.K. Chambers (University of Toronto)
Sandra Clarke (Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's)
|Staff: Student Research Assistants and Volunteers (2012)|
Systems Administrators and Software Consultants
A Panel of Consultants in various areas pertaining to Canadian history, society, nature, and culture, as well as Engish linguistics and computer sciences, is currently being assembled:
|Joan C. Beal (U of Sheffield, UK)|
|Anne Condon (UBC, Vancouver)|
|Elaine Gold (U of Toronto)|
|Eric Mathieu (U of Ottawa)|
|Leslie Monkman (Queen's U, Kingston)|
|Yves Roberge (U of Toronto)|
|Jeff Prucher (lexicographer, San Francisco)|
|Herbert Schendl (U of Vienna, Austria)|
|Luanne von Schneidemesser (DARE, U of Wisconsin, Madison, USA)|
|Mireille Tremblay (Queen's U, Kingston)|
|William Winder (UBC, Vancouver)|
Partners and Collaborators (for parts of the project)
Unit (Janice McAlpine)
We are pleased to acknowledge the support of the Strathy Language Unit and Queen's University (Kingston, Ont.) in the data collection process of the Avis (and other) legacy materials. Janice McAlpine and her team of students are instrumental in making the legacy data useable for DCHP-2 and beyond.
DARE - Dictionary of American Regional English (Luanne von Schneidemesser)
Kurt Eiselt (UBC Computer Science)
Anne Condon (UBC)
Unless otherwise noted, the following are (were) student researchers, who worked or are working with us - at different stages and for different periods of time - since March 2007.
|Baillie Ford (fall 2012)|
|Barta, Damon (summer 2010)||Roeder, Geoff (summer 2010)||Gonzales, Ashleigh
|Singleton, Diane (winter 2008)|
|Christine Barker (winter 2010)||Parisien, Matthew
|Goldfarb, Sheldon Dr. (spring 2007)|
Student workers ( class term projects)
ENGL 320 002 (Fall 2010/Winter 2011): History of English
|Brin, Michael||Hemphill, Parris||Ohman, Carmel|
|Cameron, Amanda||Islam, Rob||Ping, Fan|
|Carag, Jeremiah||Kuboniwa, Laura||Quan, Tiara|
|Chang, Jinny||Lam, Kendi||Ritchie, Lauren|
|Chi, Tiffany||Law, Rita||Schafli, Ruth|
|Colquhoun, Amanda||Leung, Tracy||Shaw, Jim|
|Davie, Caitlin||Liang, Peter||Shirai, Hanami|
|Davis, Alex||Lim, Esther||Track, David|
|Ding, Amanda||Lou, Adrian||Wong, Denise|
|Economou, Irene||Lu, Peter||
|Essex, Kirsten||Marcus, Amanda||
|Fan, Jennifer||Ng, Frederica||
ENGL 320 (Winter 2010): History of English
|Au, Helen||Hokhold, Marika||Paxian, Kellie|
|Barker, Christine||Hot, Edina||Randhawa, Harshaan|
|Bethune, Caitlin||Kusba, Sandra||Ratnarajah, Sacha|
|Broughton, Andrew||Kwok, Jason||Robinson, Nadine|
|Carter, Alexandra||Lamont, Meghan||Sy, Stephanie|
|Chong, Gregory||Law, Ruby||Tung, Andrea|
|Delleva, Crishna||Lee, Adrienne||Walley, Ryan|
|Driedger, Christina||Leung, Michael||Wang, Selena|
|Finlay, Joanna||Maurer, Anthony|
|Goertz, Rachael||Mircioiu, Andra|
|Graves, Heather||Pang, Selina|
ENGL 320 (Winter 2009): History of English
Lui, Helen Ho Lam
Ng, Helen Po Yin
De Santis, Nicholas
Smith, Jaspar O'Dell
ENGL 323A (Winter 2008): Varieties of English, Social and urban dialectology
ENGL 229D (Fall 2007): Canadian English lexicology and lexicography
|Adams, Maria||Coughlan, Kamala||Lu, Cui|
|Azad, Aisha||Good, Caroline||Lui, Helen Ho Lam|
|Cabrera, Faerie||Grant, Sara||Mings, Jana|
|Casler, Robert||Gutierrez, Claudia )||Morisset, Candace|
|Chan, Joyce||Hurd, Christopher||Newell, Ashley|
|Cheng, Claire||Johal, Suraj||Rosal, Jezreel|
|Cheng, Michelle||Jun, Najin||Shin, Lindsey|
|Cho, Adrienne||Li, Jennifer||Shiveral, Bryan|
|Chung, Sam||Lim, Richard||Tahirgil, Idil|
|Cooper, Cicily||Lo, Katrina||Yang, Frank|
|Cooper, Dan||Loshi, Molike|
ENGL 229A (Summer 2007): Canadian English lexicology and lexicography
|Brown, Nicole||Kwok, Benny||Pettet, Ashley|
|Caganova, Iveta||Lee, Eileen||Reid, Christie|
|Chan, Ivan||Levy, Allegra||Singleton, Diane|
|Ghelani, Cristina||Mathers, Jeremy||Stansfield, David|
|Krol, Anna||Oh, Angela||Tokhtarova, Mariya|
ENGL 320 001 (2006/07): History of the English language
|Blackadar, Kerry||Gross, Lon||Nisperos, Robert||Urbanski, Melanie|
|Blunden, Leah||Hilderman, Jonathan||Post, Stephanie||Wan, Edison|
|Borys, Erika||Huang, Andy||Prpic, Michael||Yao, A. J.|
|Chang, Sky||Hudson, Alexander||Rhenisch, Anassa||Yates, Shawn|
|Chiu, Susan||Laing, Breanna||Seong, Erin||Yee, Carolane|
|Cho, Peggy||Lee, Ga-Hyun||Shanahan, Jonathan|
|Choi, Kyong-Ok||Leong, Alison||Sloan, Katie|
|Claggett, Stephanie||Litt, Amntheep||Staehling, Marc|
|Comer, Victoria||Mickelson, Ryan||Stevenson, Kyle|
|Erickson, Jessica||Ngo Huynh, Mai||Tarves, Christine|
|Dissemination and media releases|||Top||
Karpf, Eva-Maria. 2012. "Das Englisch Kanadas" [Canada's English]. unizeit 73 13 July 2012, page 7 and supplement to Kieler Nachrichten (Kiel, Germany), 15 July 2012 http://www.uni-kiel.de/unizeit/index.php?bid=730705 (15 July 2012).
"Canadian-speak crossing the border". Toronto Sun , 3 Feb. 2012, http://www.torontosun.com/2012/02/03/canadian-speak-crossing-the-border
Burnett, Thane. "Canadian-speak crossing the border". CNews. 3 Feb. 2012, http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Features/Talker/2012/02/03/19335541.html
Print & Online news:
Leong, Mary. Speaking Canadian, eh?. UBC Arts Wire. 27 June 2011. Read here.
Seidman, Karen.CrackBerry, Canadarm and seat sale all deemed Canadian. Montreal Gazette. 11 June 2001. Read here.
NBC's Today Show, with Willie Geist, 16 Feb. 2010: "Why Do Canadians Say Eh?". Watch the clip (30 sec commerical, followed by 3:30 min. clip).
Past Perfect , with Lisa Christiansen, CBC Radio One. 1 Jan. 2010.
Zimmer, Ben. On Language. New York Times Sunday Magazine , 7 Mar. 2010, 14. Read here.
Fedosenko, Katie. English Research, Eh? Undergrad investigates Canadian lingo alongside professors. UBC Faculty of Arts Website. Read online here.
The Express, Shaw Channel 4 (Metro Vancouver), 1 Jun. 2009, 6 pm.
On the Coast, CBC Radio One, 30 Dec. 2009
Cross-Country Check-up, with Rex Murphy, CBC Radio One, 14 Jun. 2009.
On the Coast, CBC Radio One, 10 Jun. 2009
"A tip of the tuque". Letter to the editor. The Globe and Mail, 26 Sep. 2009. Read online here.
"And the millionth word is ... hardly a word at all", The Globe and Mail , 11 Jun. 2009, A3
Trail's End, CBC Radio One, Yellowknife, NWT, with host Norbert Poitras, 1 Feb. 2008.
Information Morning, CBC Radio One, Saint John, NB, with host Paul Castle, 1 Feb. 2008.
Voyage North, CBC Radio One, Thunder Bay, ON, with host Gerald Graham, 31 Jan. 2008.
Main Street, CBC Radio One, Halifax, NS, with host Stephanie Domet, 31 Jan. 2008.
All Points West, CBC Radio One, Victoria, BC, with host Jo-Ann Roberts, 31 Jan. 2008.
Up To Speed, CBC Radio One, Winnipeg, MB, with host Margaux Watt, 31 Jan. 2008.
On the Coast, CBC Radio One, Vancouver, BC, with host Belle Puri, 31 Jan. 2008.
" 'Canadians' used as a racial slur" Gary Doyle Show, 570 News, Kitchener, ON, 29 Jan. 2008.
Fong, Petti. "Around loathed words, Vancouverites unite.
An artist sets out to find what irks her city and sees a troubling pattern". Toronto Star, 7 June 2008.
" 'Canuck' racial slur in U.S. south. Prince George Citizen. Prince George, BC, 31 Jan. 2008, p. 2.
" 'Canadian' used as a racial slur to describe African Americans, linguist says". Daily Bulletin. Kimberley, BC, 29 Jan. 2008, p. 19.
" 'Canadian' used as a racial slur to describe African Americans, linguist says". Daily Townsman. Cranbrook, BC. 29 Jan. 2008, p. 19.
" 'Canadian' used as slur against blacks". Kamloops Daily News. Kamloops, BC, 29 Jan 2008, A2.
Canadian Press Wire. " 'Canadian' used as a slur in U.S. south to describe blacks, says linguist". The Daily Gleaner, Fredericton, NB, 30 Jan. 2008, C4. Read here.
Gandia, Renato. " 'Canadian' a slur in U.S." Edmonton Sun. 29 Jan. 2008. Read here.
Hamilton, Graeme. "The new code word for black: 'Canadian'; Slur In U.S. South" National Post [National Edition]. 25 Jan. 2008, A1 .
Hamilton, Graeme. "In the U.S. south, is Canadian a new racial slur?" National Post, online, 24 Jan. 2008. Read here.
"The Bank of Canadian English as a Linguistic Research Tool (the Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles and beyond)". Leiden University (The Netherlands). Leiden University Centre for Linguistics. 17 June 2008.
"Sociohistorical Linguistics of Canadian English". Guest lecture, UBC, Department of Linguistics, LING 100 (Dr. Dechaine), 12 Mar. 2008.
Closing keynote address "Research, undergraduate students and UBC", 7th MURC Conference, UBC, Ike Barber Learning Centre, 8 Mar. 2008.
"The Bank of Canadian English and the Dictionary of Canadianisms: two project by the Canadian English Lab at UBC". Guest lecture, UBC, Department of English, ENGL 320 (Dr. Arnovick), 25 Jan. 2008.
Roberts, Meghan. "Dictionary of Canadianisms puts English students in the Lab" Centre for Arts Student Services. UBC, Vancouver. June 2008.
Interview on Global BC TV (Vancouver, B.C.), Noon Weekend News with
Sophie Lui, 21 July 2007.
Interview on City TV (Vancouver, B.C.), Breakfast TV, 3 July 2007.
Interview on CBC Newsworld, 2 July 2007.
Phone-in show and interview with Mark Forsythe, CBC Radio One, BC Almanac, 5 Nov. 2007.
Interview on CBC Radio One, As It Happens, 2 July 2007. See here.
Interview on AM640 Toronto, Bromell, 29 June 2007. See here.
"Slanguage, Above the 49th." The Chronicle of Higher Education
(Washington, D.C., USA). Vol. LIII, Nr. 46 (20 July 2007).
"From eh to zed, je suis Canadien!". Kamloops Daily News (Kamloops, B.C.), 28 June 2007, A6.
"Eh to zed, je suis Canadien!". Alaska Highway News (Fort St. John, B.C.), 27 June 2007, A4.
"Eh to zed, je suis Canadien!". Calgary Herald (Calgary, Alta.), 26 June 2007, A14.
"Professor logging Canadianisms for dictionary". Daily Townsman and Bulletin (Cranbrook, B.C.), 26 June 2007, 18.
"We're Canadians, eh?". Leader Post (Regina, Sask.), 25 June 2007, B1.
"Professor to write a new chapter in the book of 'Canadianisms'. National Post [National Edition] (Don Mills, Ont.), 25 June 2007, A6.
"Prof logs 'Canadianisms'". The Star-Phoenix (Saskatoon, Sask.), 25 June 2007: A8.
"Prof tracks the double double and other 'Canadianisms'". The Gazette (Montreal, Que.). 25 June 2007, A9.
"Canucks coin new phrases; Professor updates 'Canadianisms' list. The Windsor Star (Windsor, Ont.), 25 June 2007, B1.
"Canadian lexicon gets a boost". Calgary Herald, (Calgary, Alta.), 24 June 2007, A1 [Front].
"Professor gives Canuck dictionary a facelift; UBC students track the history of 'Canadianisms'". Calgary Herald, (Calgary, Alta.), 24 June 2007, A5.
"Calling all Canadianisms". The Ottawa Citizen (Ottawa, Ont.), 24 June 2007: A2.
"Canadianisms get update in new dictionary" The Times-Colonist (Victoria, B.C.), 24 June 2007, A5.
Webb, Kate. "UBC professor tracks Canadianisms; plans to add terms like 'gem jar to dictionary". The Province (Vancouver, B.C.), 24 June 2007, A24.
Keong, Michelle. "Canadianisms, eh?" artsBeat (UBC, Vancouver), Summer 2007, p. 2. Online version (21 June 2007).
"Canuck, eh? Hoser, you're in the book". Winnipeg Free Press (Winnipeg, Man.), 10 March 2007: C17
"Canuck lingo update on tap". The Windsor Star (Windsor, Ont.), 10 March 2007 (final edition): C12.
"Canadianisms from eh to Z". Nanaimo Daily News (Nanaimo, B.C.), 10 March 2007: C1, front
"New dictionary aims to put 'Canuck' back into Canadian", Daily News (Halifax, N.S.), 10 March 2007, p. 13
"Canadian dictionary getting full overhaul", Ottawa Citizen (Ottawa, Ont.) , 12 March 2007, news brief on A2 and full subscriber version online
Krangle, Karenn. "Canadian English, eh", The Vancouver Sun (Vancouver, B.C.), 10 March 2007 (weekend, final edition), B1-3, front. An online version can be seen here (30 May 2007).
"Revising the Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles in the information age: some insights from letter 'G'", Biennial Meeting of the Dictionary Society of North America, University of Chicago, 15 June 2007.
"Canuckiana, eh? A linguistic browse through Canadian English", Emily Carr Institute, Vancouver, BC, guest lecture, 6 June 2007.
"Washrooms , toques , video lottery terminals and timbits: Why we need a new Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles", Department of English, University of British Columbia, guest lecture for History of English students, 1 Feb. 2007.
"Canucks, toques, and grow-ops": Towards a new Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles", Brock House Society , Vancouver, British Columbia, 26 October 2006.
"Canuck , toque , hoser and skid road : Towards a new Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles", Department of English Colloquium, University of British Columbia, 27 Sept. 2006.
"Canucks, toques, runners and the need for a new Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles". 14 th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics, University of Bergamo, Italy. 25 Aug. 2006.
Announcement of the start of the project in the newsletter of the Dictionary Society of North America (30.1 Spring 2006)
6 April 2006
Message distributed to the subscribers of the mailing list of the International Society for Historical Lexicography and Lexicology
Select works pertaining to Canadian English lexicography and lexicology and works cited on this website:
Adler, Jacob. 1975. The etymology of Canuck. American Speech. 50/1-2. 158-160.
Avis, Walter S. 1978. "Canadian English in its North American context" - in: Vincent, Thomas, George Parker and Stephen Bonnycastle (eds.) Walter S. Avis: essays and articles. Selected from a quarter century of scholarship at the Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston. Kingston: Royal Military College of Canada, 35-49.
Avis, Walter S. 1978 . "Some French-Canadian loan-words in Canadian
English" - in: Vincent, Thomas, George Parker and Stephen Bonnycastle (eds.)
Walter S. Avis: essays and articles. Selected from a quarter century of scholarship
at the Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston. Kingston: Royal Military
College of Canada, 157-171.
Avis, Walter S. 1973. "Eskimo words in Canadian English". Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik. Beihefte Ed. Scholler, Harald and John Reidy. Lexicography and dialect geography. Festgabe for Hans Kurath. Neue Folge, H.9: 25-36 - reprinted in Vincent et al. (eds.) 1978, 142-156.
Avis, Walter S. 1954. "Speech differences along the Ontario-United States border. I: Vocabulary". Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association (now Canadian Journal of Linguistics). 1/1 (Oct.): 13-18.
Avis, Walter S. and A. M. Kinloch (eds.) (). Writings on Canadian English, 1792-1975. An annotated bibliography. Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside.
Avis, Walter S., Charles Crate, Patrick Drysdale, Douglas Leechman, Matthew H. Scharill and Charles L. Lovell (eds). 1967. A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles. Toronto: Gage.
Boberg, Charles. 2005. " The North American Regional Vocabulary Survey: new variables and methods in the study of North American English" American Speech. 80/1: 22-60.
Brinton, Laurel J. and Margery Fee. 2001. "Canadian English." - in: Algeo, John (ed.) The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. VI. English in North America. Cambridge: CUP, 422-440.
Chambers, J. K. 2000. "Region and language variation". English World-Wide. 21/2: 169-199.
Chambers, J. K. 1998. "English: Canadian varieties" - in: Edwards, John (ed.) Language in Canada. Cambridge: CUP, 252-272.
Chambers, J. K. 1998. "Social embedding of changes in progress". Journal of English Linguistics. 26/1: 5-36.
Chambers, J. K. 1995. "The Canada-U.S. border as a vanishing isogloss: the evidence of chesterfield". Journal of English Linguistics. 23: 155-166.
Chambers, J. K. 1994. "An introduction to dialect topography". English World-Wide. 15: 35-53.
Chambers, J. K. 1993. ""Lawless and vulgar innovations": Victorian views on Canadian English" - in: Sandra Clarke (ed.) Focus on Canada. Amsterdam: Benjamins (= Varieties of English Around the World, G11), 1-26.
Clyne, Michael (ed.). 1992. Pluricentric languages. Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Davey, William and Richard MacKinnon. 1995. "A report on the Dictionary of Cape Breton English" - in: Lillian, Donna L. (ed.) Papers from the Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistic Association, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, November 10-11, 1995, 21-34.
Dollinger, Stefan. 2011. DCHP-1 Online: A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles Online. Based on Walter S. Avis et al. (1967). With the assistance of Laurel J. Brinton and Margery Fee. (Online dictionary) http://dchp.ca/DCHP-1/ . Open Access is pending.
Dollinger, Stefan. 2011. "The 'Groundhog Day Loop' in Canadian English". Strathy Unit Language Blog, period of April/May 2011. 1200 words, 14 April 2011, http://www.queensu.ca/strathy/Blog.html.
Dollinger, Stefan. 2010. "A new historical dictionary of Canadian English as a linguistic database tool. Or, making a virtue out of necessity" In: Considine, John (ed.) Current Projects in Historical Lexicography. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 99-112.
Dollinger, Stefan. 2010. "Software from the Bank of Canadian English as an open source tool for the dialectologist: ling.surf and its features". In: Manfred Markus, Clive Upton and Reinhard Heuberger (eds.) Joseph Wright's English Dialect Dictionary and Beyond: Studies in Late Modern English Dialectology. Berne: Lang, 249-261.
Dollinger, Stefan. 2006. "Towards a fully revised and extended edition of the Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles (DCHP-2): background, challenges, prospects". Historical Sociolinguistics/Sociohistorical Linguisics (Leiden, NL). 6. http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/hsl_shl/DCHP-2/DCHP-2/DCHP-2.htm
Dollinger, Stefan. 2006. "Oh Canada! Towards the Corpus of Early Ontario English" - in: Renouf, Antoinette and Andrew Kehoe (eds.). The changing face of corpus linguistics. Proceedings of the 24th ICAME Conference, Guernsey, UK, April 2003. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 7-25.
Dollinger, Stefan and Luanne von Schneidemesser. 2011. "Canadianism, Americanism, North Americanism? A Comparison of DARE and DCHP". American Speech 86(2): 115-151.
Dollinger, Stefan and Laurel J. Brinton. 2008. "Canadian English lexis: historical and variationist perspectives". Anglistik: International Journal of English Studies 19(2) Special Issue "Focus on Canadian English", Ed. by Matthias Meyer, 43-64.
Dollinger, Stefan (ed.-in-chief), Laurel Brinton (assoc. ed.) and Margery Fee (assoc. ed.). In prep. DCHP-2: The Dictinary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles. Second Edition. Online dictionary. http://dchp.ca/DCHP-2/.
Fee, Margery. 1992. "Canadian dictionaries in English" - in: McArthur, Tom (ed.) The Oxford companion to the English language. Oxford: OUP, 178-179.
Fee, Margery. 1991. "Frenglish in Quebec English newspapers" - in: Davey, William J. and Bernard LeVert (eds.) Papers from the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistic Association November 8-9, 1991, University College of Cape Breton, Sydney, Nova Scotia, 12-23.
Gold, Elaine. 2004b. "Yiddish words in Canadian English: spread and change" - in: Sherman, Joseph (ed.) Yiddish after the Holocaust. Oxford, Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies: Boulevard.
Görlach, Manfred. 1991 . "The identity of Canadian English" - in: Görlach, Manfred (ed.) Englishes. Studies in varieties of English 1984-1988. Amsterdam: Benjamins (= Varieties of English Around the World, G9), 108-121.
Gregg, Robert J. 1993. "Canadian English lexicography" - in: Clarke, Sandra (ed.) Focus on Canada. Amsterdam: Benjamins (= Varieties of English around the World, G11), 27-44.
Gregg, Robert J. 1983. "Local lexical items in the sociodialectal Survey of Vancouver English". Canadian Journal of Linguistics. 28/1: 17-23.
Harris, Barbara P. 1981. "Etymological problems in the lexicon of Chinook Jargon: some proposed solutions. Part I: words of French and Canadian French origina". Working Papers of the Linguistic Circle of the University of Victoria. 1/2: 218-232.
King, Ruth and Sandra Clarke. 2002. "Contesting meaning: Newfie and the politics of ethnic labelling". Journal of Sociolinguistics. 6/4: 537-556.
Lougheed, William C. (ed.) 1986. In search of the standard in Canadian English. Kingston: Queen's University (= Strathy Language Unit Occasional Papers, 1).
Lovell, Charles J. 1958. "A sampling of materials for a dictionary of Canadian English based on historical principles". Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association (now Canadian Journal of Linguistics). 4/1 (Spring): 7-33.
Lovell, Charles J. 1956."Whys and hows of collecting for the Dictionary of Canadian English: Part II: Excerption and quotation". Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association (now Canadian Journal of Linguistics). 2/1 (Mar.): 23-32.
Lovell, Charles J. 1955."Whys and hows of collecting for the Dictionary of Canadian English: Part I: Scope and source material". Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association (now Canadian Journal of Linguistics). 1/2 (Oct.): 3-8.
Lovell, Charles J. 1955. "Lexicographic challenges of Canadian English".
Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association (now Canadian Journal of Linguistics).
1/1 (Mar.): 2-5.
McConnell, Ruth. 1979. Our own voice. Canadian English and how it is studied. Toronto: Gage.
McDavid, Raven I. 1970. Canadian English [review of Orkin 1970]. American Speech. 46/3-4: 287-289.
Nylvek, Judith A. 1993. "A sociolinguistic analysis of Canadian English in Saskatchewan: a look at urban versus rural speakers" - in: Clarke, Sandra (ed.) Focus on Canada. Amsterdam: Benjamins (= Varieties of English around the World, G11), 201-228.
Pratt, Terrence K. (ed.) 1988. Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Preston, Dennis R. (ed.) 2003. Needed research in American dialects. Publication of the American Dialect Society. 88. American Dialect Society: Duke University Press.
Scargill, Matthew H. 1977. A short history of Canadian English. Victoria, BC: Sono Nis. [almost exclusively on lexis]
Scargill, Matthew H. and Henry J. Warkentyne. 1972. "The survey of Canadian English: a report". The English Quarterly. A publication of the Canadian Council of Teachers of English. 5/3 (Fall): 47-104.
Sledd, James. 1978. What are we going to do about it now that were number one?. American Speech 53: 175-194.
Story, G. M., W. J. Kirwin and J. D. A. Widdowson (eds.) 1982 [2nd ed. 1990] Dictionary of Newfoundland English. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Warkentyne, Henry J. and A. C. Brett. 1981. "British and American influences on Canadian English". Working Papers of the Linguistic Cirlce of the University of Victoria. 1/2: 294-310.
Wick, Neil. 2004. Analyzing language variation and change as a complex adaptive system. Unpublished Master of Arts major research paper, York University, Toronto.
Zeller, Christine. 1993. "Linguistic symmetries, asymmetries, and border effects within a Canadian/American sample" - in: Clarke, Sandra (ed.) Focus on Canada. Amsterdam: Benjamins (= Varieties of English around the World, G11), 179-200.
If you would like to submit a word, expression or meaning that might qualify as a Canadianism, i.e. originated in the country or is "distinctively characteristic" of Canada, please send us an email at:
Please provide details as to when and where you read/heard the word. If possible, include an example of the word in context. Also, if you use the term you're reporting yourself, or used it in the past, please provide some background information in form of a 'mini biography': where (and when) you grew up (city, province, country), where you went to school, what second languages were spoken in your area.
We will read and review every submission, but cannot, unfortunately, respond individually to each submission. Thanks for your understanding and thank you very much for your input.
Now that DCHP-1 Online is available free of charge to everyone, the demand for hard copy is low. However, the book lover still has the option to order a hard copy from the publisher.
The 1967 hardcover version can only be purchased through second-hand bookstores, but a 1991 paperback reprint, which is virtually identical with the hardcover version, is still in print. The paperback version must be ordered directly through the publisher (Cdn$ 44.45).
You can order the "Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles 0771519761"
with Nelson Customer Service:
Telephone: (416) 752-9448 or Toll-free in Canada 1-800-268-2222