Welcome to www.dchp.ca, the virtual home of the
Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles
Bank of Canadian English

The Second Edition was launched on
March 17th, 2017 at www.dchp.ca/dchp2
after 11 years of work.

You may also wish to consult www.dchp.ca/dchp1 for the digital version of the 1967 edition, and/or read or browse these texts:
* a 2-page summary: https://www.academia.edu/27953425/
* a 20-page paper: https://www.academia.edu/20618274/
* the dictionary's introduction (40 pages): https://www.academia.edu/31148609/
* about Newfoundland's special role: https://www.academia.edu/16544684/
* on the methodology underlying the frequency charts:

Submitting potential Canadianisms

Introduction: DCHP-1
The Project: DCHP-2
People and partnerships
Dissemination and media releases
Sample bibliography
Contact us

Access DCHP-1 Online (free of charge)

Where to purchase DCHP-1 (hard copy)

Photos from MURC-7

Funding for the DCHP-2 has been provided by the following institutions:

University of Vienna, Austria

Canada Summer Jobs

The Faculty of Arts at the University of British Columbia

The Department of English at the University of British Columbia


Introduction |Top|

The Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles was edited by Avis, Walter S. (ed.-in-chief), C. Crate, P. Drysdale, D. Leechman, M. H. Scargill, C. J. Lovell and published in 1967 by W. J. Gage Limited. Meanwhile, more than 40 years have passed and some of the inevitable oversights and errors in the first edition were joined by close to half a century of Canadian history that is left undocumented. This period saw the rise of such ubiquitous Canadianisms as GST, grow-op, loonie, murder ball, Nanaimo bar, notwithstanding clause, and seat sale, as well as more confined, specialist and regional terms such as bachelor, lotus land, and pure laine. The time is ripe for a second, fully revised and extended edition of the DCHP, which is the aim of the DCHP-2 Project at the University of British Columbia (see above for our supporting institutions).

Planning for this project commenced in 2005 after the Canadian English in the Global Context Conference, held in honour of J.K. Chambers.

The project entered a pilot study phase in March 2006 and relocated to the Department of English at the University of British Columbia in August 2006. In 2011, the first edtion was fully digitized (Dollinger 2011) and was released in March 2013 in open access (see below). We are currently editing the new edition DCHP-2 (Dollinger, Brinton and Fee. In prep.), which we expect to finish in December 2016.


DCHP-1: a brief history

The DCHP-1 was conceived in 1954 at the inaugural meeting of the Canadian Linguistic Association. Its completion, which coincided with Canada's centennial celebration in 1967, testified not only to the highly successful start of Canadian historical lexicography, but of Canadian English lexicography in general, as it served as the backdrop of the first truly Canadian English dictionary series. The public's response to the DCHP-1 and its echo in the press, both pre- and post-publication was very favourable, even enthusiastic. An impressive number of reviews in newspapers and magazines, both domestic and international (cf. entries in Avis and Kinloch 1977), as well as congratulatory notes from competing publishers, testify to the warm reception of DCHP-1. Jess Stein, the president of Random House at the time, called the DCHP-1 "a real landmark in English lexicography" (1 Dec. 1967), and Sidney Landau, then editor-in-chief of Funk & Wagnall's dictionaries, wondered, "now that we have it [the DCHP] I cannot imagine how we managed to get along so long without it" (29 Nov. 1967). In combination with the high regard the DCHP-1 has held within linguistic circles (Raven I. McDavid defended the DCHP-1 in a 1970 review), it must be considered a veritable success.

At the same time, spin-off publications based on the DCHP-1, such as the Gage Senior Dictionary, were being adopted by Canadian publishers as their in-house reference tool (e.g. The Telegram newspaper, Toronto). In a review of a different work on Canadian English, no less a dialect scholar than Raven I. McDavid both praised the DCHP and, from today's perspective somewhat ironically, pointed to its ongoing updating and revision process, which was meant to set the DCHP apart from comparable dictionaries (see McDavid 1970:289).

Almost 40 years and not a single update later, we can say that this goal has not been met; we still only have the first edition (the sudden death of the editor-in-chief, Walter S. Avis, in 1979 is a likely reason). Through the acquisition of Gage by Nelson Education, however, we are now in the position to open a new chapter in Canadian English historical lexicography.

Access DCHP-1 Online, which was realeased in open access on March 11, 2013: http://dchp.ca/DCHP-1


DCHP-2: aims of the project

There are a number of reasons why a second edition of the DCHP is desirable: First, a revision would update the work for the twenty-first century by adding about half a century of Canadian word history. Second, any revision would need to remedy the biggest gaps of the DCHP-1 through correcting (and possibly purging) misconceived and outdated entries, updating etymologies, and improving on definitions. Third, a new DCHP can take advantage of the developments in information technology and be published, besides a print edition, as a database, which would allow for multiple uses.

Time horizon: seven years (2007-2013) for a complete revision, depending on funding (publication in 2014). We are seeking funding for the first three-year period with the goal to produce an Online revision that provides a complete update (post-1967 entries) and corrects the most important oversights in DCHP-1. DCHP-2 will be an important step towards a complete revised edition.


DCHP-2 and some of its tasks |Top|

While the DCHP-1 is a well-conceived and carefully edited dictionary, the following issues are among the improvements considered in a new edition:


Post-1967 Canadianisms

Items overlooked in DCHP-1


Revision of definitions

Documentary evidence of historical citations

Coverage of citations by period

Etymologies and scholarly works published since 1967


People Team Photos |Top|

Editorial board


Stefan Dollinger (University of British Columbia, Vancouver)

Margery Fee (University of British Columbia, Vancouver)
Associate Editor


Advisory Committee


J.K. Chambers (University of Toronto)

David Friend (formerly of Nelson Ltd. and Oxford University Press)

Sandra Clarke (Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's)

T.K. Pratt (University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown)



Staff: Student Research Assistants and Volunteers (as of 2012)  

Research Student Staff
Gabrielle Lim
Baillie Ford

Former staff
Jocelyn Hassell (2011-12)
Caitlin Bethune (2009-10)
Emily Briggs (2012)
Faerie Cabrera (2010-11)
Cicily Cooper (2008-2009)
Sam Chung (2008-2010)
Mark Douglas (2012)
Laura Kuboniwa (2010-11)
Breanna Laing (2006-2008)
Kendi Lam (2010-11)
Emma Lee (2010)
Adrienne Lee (2008)
Katrina Lo (2008-2011) (lab manager, 2010)
Molika Loshi (2008-2009)
Helen Lui (2008-10)
Margarita Manabat (2010)
Izabela Moldovan (2007-2009)
Jim Shaw (2010-11)
Lindsey Shin (2008)
Hanami Shirai (2010-11)
David Stansfield (2007-2008)
Evgenia Todorova (2010)
Phoebe Wong (2011)
Frank Yang (2008-2010)



Software Programming


Systems Administrators and Software Consultants
Jeremy Hewett

Former programmers:
Frank Hangler
David Kennedy
Usman Khan
Matthew Gruman

CPSC319 Programmers (Winter 2008)
Yanik Berube
Taivo Evard
Frank Hangler
David Kennedy
Stephanie Kuo
Cindy Lai
Cindy Shih
Kyu-Eun Lee
Jonathan Ng
Sha Xiao
Yian Chen





A Panel of Consultants in various areas pertaining to Canadian history, society, nature, and culture, as well as Engish linguistics and computer sciences, is currently being assembled:

  Joan C. Beal (U of Sheffield, UK)  
  Anne Condon (UBC, Vancouver)  
  Elaine Gold (U of Toronto)  
  Eric Mathieu (U of Ottawa)  
  Leslie Monkman (Queen's U, Kingston)  
  Yves Roberge (U of Toronto)  
  Jeff Prucher (lexicographer, San Francisco)  
  Herbert Schendl (U of Vienna, Austria)  
  Luanne von Schneidemesser (DARE, U of Wisconsin, Madison, USA)  
  Mireille Tremblay (Queen's U, Kingston)  
  William Winder (UBC, Vancouver)  

Partners and Collaborators (for parts of the project)

Strathy Language Unit (Janice McAlpine)
We are pleased to acknowledge the support of the Strathy Language Unit and Queen's University (Kingston, Ont.) in the data collection process of the Avis (and other) legacy materials. Janice McAlpine and her team of students are instrumental in making the legacy data useable for DCHP-2 and beyond.

DARE - Dictionary of American Regional English (Luanne von Schneidemesser)

Kurt Eiselt (UBC Computer Science)

Anne Condon (UBC)




Unless otherwise noted, the following are (were) student researchers, who worked or are working with us - at different stages and for different periods of time - since March 2007.

Baillie Ford (fall 2012)      
Barta, Damon (summer 2010) Roeder, Geoff (summer 2010) Gonzales, Ashleigh
(winter 2008)
Singleton, Diane (winter 2008)
Christine Barker (winter 2010) Parisien, Matthew
(winter 2008)
Moldovan, Izabela
(fall 2008)
Goldfarb, Sheldon Dr. (spring 2007)


Student workers ( class term projects)

ENGL 320 002 (Fall 2010/Winter 2011): History of English

Brin, Michael Hemphill, Parris Ohman, Carmel
Cameron, Amanda Islam, Rob Ping, Fan
Carag, Jeremiah Kuboniwa, Laura Quan, Tiara
Chang, Jinny Lam, Kendi Ritchie, Lauren
Chi, Tiffany Law, Rita Schafli, Ruth
Colquhoun, Amanda Leung, Tracy Shaw, Jim
Davie, Caitlin Liang, Peter Shirai, Hanami
Davis, Alex Lim, Esther Track, David
Ding, Amanda Lou, Adrian Wong, Denise
Economou, Irene Lu, Peter

Wong, Tammy

Essex, Kirsten Marcus, Amanda

Wright, Isis-Isabella

Fan, Jennifer Ng, Frederica

Yau, Christy


ENGL 320 (Winter 2010): History of English

Au, Helen Hokhold, Marika Paxian, Kellie
Barker, Christine Hot, Edina Randhawa, Harshaan
Bethune, Caitlin Kusba, Sandra Ratnarajah, Sacha
Broughton, Andrew Kwok, Jason Robinson, Nadine
Carter, Alexandra Lamont, Meghan Sy, Stephanie
Chong, Gregory Law, Ruby Tung, Andrea
Delleva, Crishna Lee, Adrienne Walley, Ryan
Driedger, Christina Leung, Michael Wang, Selena
Finlay, Joanna Maurer, Anthony  
Goertz, Rachael Mircioiu, Andra  
Graves, Heather Pang, Selina  
Hinkley, Katharine    


ENGL 320 (Winter 2009): History of English

Amijee, Aisha

Edwin, Aila

Lim, Richard

Bartfeld, Peleg

Fung, Lily

Liu, Jessie

Bedford, Jessica

Gates, Danielle

Louie, Justin

Bonofas, Orania

Ghelani, Cristina

Lui, Helen Ho Lam

Carter, Aaron

Guo, Beibei

Manabat, Margarita

Chan, Alan

Harstone, Lauren

Ng, Helen Po Yin

Cheng, Michelle

Henrickson, Meghan

Plant, Matt

Corlin, Nicole

Ho, Rosalind

Ponce, Marc

Cosens, Megan

Joo, Seungha

Shin, Hyewon

De Santis, Nicholas

Lakhani, Alyzee

Smith, Jaspar O'Dell

Dorsch, Stephanie

Lee, Manhee

Sugiyama, Miki

Economides, Elyse

Leung, Jenny

Talbot, Suzanne


Tse, Marilyn


ENGL 323A (Winter 2008): Varieties of English, Social and urban dialectology

Archacka, Natalia Good, Caroline Reid, Kate
Ball, Megan Jarvis, Tara Sadowski, Kaja
Bedford, Holly Khon, Pavel Siu, Loretta
Borowy, Michael Kim, Dong Talbot, Suzanne
Chan, Laura Kim, Sunjung Tam, Corey
Chan, Stephanie Kwok, Cheryl Toews, Teresa
Chen, Wei-Li Laila, Roud Tse, Jane
Chow, Angela Le, Elaine Vardy-Bragg, Emma
Clark-Johnson, Samantha Lee, Tanya Vi, Jennifer
Cooper, Cicily Leong, Alison Wong, Karen
Cruz, Hasya Lim, Ja Young Wu, Mary
Einarsdottir, Katrin Lin, Gideon Yates, Shawn
Gang, Miro Parisien, Matthew Yu, Emmy
Garnier, Kaitlyn Park, Hyojin Xing, Diana
    Post, Stephanie    


ENGL 229D (Fall 2007): Canadian English lexicology and lexicography

Adams, Maria Coughlan, Kamala Lu, Cui
Azad, Aisha Good, Caroline Lui, Helen Ho Lam
Cabrera, Faerie Grant, Sara Mings, Jana
Casler, Robert Gutierrez, Claudia ) Morisset, Candace
Chan, Joyce Hurd, Christopher Newell, Ashley
Cheng, Claire Johal, Suraj Rosal, Jezreel
Cheng, Michelle Jun, Najin Shin, Lindsey
Cho, Adrienne Li, Jennifer Shiveral, Bryan
Chung, Sam Lim, Richard Tahirgil, Idil
Cooper, Cicily Lo, Katrina Yang, Frank
Cooper, Dan Loshi, Molike  


ENGL 229A (Summer 2007): Canadian English lexicology and lexicography

Brown, Nicole Kwok, Benny Pettet, Ashley
Caganova, Iveta Lee, Eileen Reid, Christie
Chan, Ivan Levy, Allegra Singleton, Diane
Ghelani, Cristina Mathers, Jeremy Stansfield, David
Krol, Anna Oh, Angela Tokhtarova, Mariya


ENGL 320 001 (2006/07): History of the English language

Blackadar, Kerry Gross, Lon Nisperos, Robert Urbanski, Melanie
Blunden, Leah Hilderman, Jonathan Post, Stephanie Wan, Edison
Borys, Erika Huang, Andy Prpic, Michael Yao, A. J.
Chang, Sky Hudson, Alexander Rhenisch, Anassa Yates, Shawn
Chiu, Susan Laing, Breanna Seong, Erin Yee, Carolane
Cho, Peggy Lee, Ga-Hyun Shanahan, Jonathan  
Choi, Kyong-Ok Leong, Alison Sloan, Katie  
Claggett, Stephanie Litt, Amntheep Staehling, Marc  
Comer, Victoria Mickelson, Ryan Stevenson, Kyle  
Erickson, Jessica Ngo Huynh, Mai Tarves, Christine  







Dissemination and media releases |Top|

2017(not complete)

On the Island, CBC Radio One, 6 July 2017, c. 8:20 to 8:30. Stefan Dollinger in studio with host Khalik Akhtar. Audio.


... missing years... get in touch if interested.



Karpf, Eva-Maria. 2012. "Das Englisch Kanadas" [Canada's English]. unizeit 73 13 July 2012, page 7 and supplement to Kieler Nachrichten (Kiel, Germany), 15 July 2012 http://www.uni-kiel.de/unizeit/index.php?bid=730705 (15 July 2012).
"Canadian-speak crossing the border". Toronto Sun , 3 Feb. 2012, http://www.torontosun.com/2012/02/03/canadian-speak-crossing-the-border
Burnett, Thane. "Canadian-speak crossing the border". CNews. 3 Feb. 2012, http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Features/Talker/2012/02/03/19335541.html



Print & Online news:
Leong, Mary. Speaking Canadian, eh?. UBC Arts Wire. 27 June 2011. Read here.
Seidman, Karen.CrackBerry, Canadarm and seat sale all deemed Canadian. Montreal Gazette. 11 June 2001. Read here.



NBC's Today Show, with Willie Geist, 16 Feb. 2010: "Why Do Canadians Say Eh?". Watch the clip (30 sec commerical, followed by 3:30 min. clip).

Past Perfect , with Lisa Christiansen, CBC Radio One. 1 Jan. 2010.

Zimmer, Ben. On Language. New York Times Sunday Magazine , 7 Mar. 2010, 14. Read here.
Fedosenko, Katie. English Research, Eh? Undergrad investigates Canadian lingo alongside professors. UBC Faculty of Arts Website. Read online here.



The Express, Shaw Channel 4 (Metro Vancouver), 1 Jun. 2009, 6 pm.

On the Coast, CBC Radio One, 30 Dec. 2009
Cross-Country Check-up
, with Rex Murphy, CBC Radio One, 14 Jun. 2009.
On the Coast, CBC Radio One, 10 Jun. 2009

Print media
"A tip of the tuque". Letter to the editor. The Globe and Mail, 26 Sep. 2009. Read online here.
"And the millionth word is ... hardly a word at all", The Globe and Mail , 11 Jun. 2009, A3




Trail's End, CBC Radio One, Yellowknife, NWT, with host Norbert Poitras, 1 Feb. 2008.
Information Morning
, CBC Radio One, Saint John, NB, with host Paul Castle, 1 Feb. 2008.
Voyage North
, CBC Radio One, Thunder Bay, ON, with host Gerald Graham, 31 Jan. 2008.
Main Street, CBC Radio One, Halifax, NS, with host Stephanie Domet, 31 Jan. 2008.
All Points West, CBC Radio One, Victoria, BC, with host Jo-Ann Roberts, 31 Jan. 2008.
Up To Speed, CBC Radio One, Winnipeg, MB, with host Margaux Watt, 31 Jan. 2008.
On the Coast, CBC Radio One, Vancouver, BC, with host Belle Puri, 31 Jan. 2008.
" 'Canadians' used as a racial slur" Gary Doyle Show, 570 News, Kitchener, ON, 29 Jan. 2008.

Print media

Fong, Petti. "Around loathed words, Vancouverites unite. An artist sets out to find what irks her city and sees a troubling pattern". Toronto Star, 7 June 2008. Read here.
" 'Canuck' racial slur in U.S. south. Prince George Citizen. Prince George, BC, 31 Jan. 2008, p. 2.
" 'Canadian' used as a racial slur to describe African Americans, linguist says". Daily Bulletin. Kimberley, BC, 29 Jan. 2008, p. 19.
" 'Canadian' used as a racial slur to describe African Americans, linguist says". Daily Townsman. Cranbrook, BC. 29 Jan. 2008, p. 19.
" 'Canadian' used as slur against blacks". Kamloops Daily News. Kamloops, BC, 29 Jan 2008, A2.

Canadian Press Wire. " 'Canadian' used as a slur in U.S. south to describe blacks, says linguist". The Daily Gleaner, Fredericton, NB, 30 Jan. 2008, C4. Read here.
Gandia, Renato. " 'Canadian' a slur in U.S." Edmonton Sun. 29 Jan. 2008. Read here.
Hamilton, Graeme. "The new code word for black: 'Canadian'; Slur In U.S. South" National Post [National Edition]. 25 Jan. 2008, A1 .
Hamilton, Graeme. "In the U.S. south, is Canadian a new racial slur?" National Post, online, 24 Jan. 2008. Read here.


"The Bank of Canadian English as a Linguistic Research Tool (the Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles and beyond)". Leiden University (The Netherlands). Leiden University Centre for Linguistics. 17 June 2008.
"Sociohistorical Linguistics of Canadian English". Guest lecture, UBC, Department of Linguistics, LING 100 (Dr. Dechaine), 12 Mar. 2008.
Closing keynote address "Research, undergraduate students and UBC", 7th MURC Conference, UBC, Ike Barber Learning Centre, 8 Mar. 2008.
"The Bank of Canadian English and the Dictionary of Canadianisms: two project by the Canadian English Lab at UBC". Guest lecture, UBC, Department of English, ENGL 320 (Dr. Arnovick), 25 Jan. 2008.

Student media

Roberts, Meghan. "Dictionary of Canadianisms puts English students in the Lab" Centre for Arts Student Services. UBC, Vancouver. June 2008.
Read here.




Interview on Global BC TV (Vancouver, B.C.), Noon Weekend News with Sophie Lui, 21 July 2007.
Interview on City TV (Vancouver, B.C.), Breakfast TV, 3 July 2007.
Interview on CBC Newsworld, 2 July 2007.


Phone-in show and interview with Mark Forsythe, CBC Radio One, BC Almanac, 5 Nov. 2007.
Interview on CBC Radio One, As It Happens, 2 July 2007. See here.
Interview on AM640 Toronto, Bromell, 29 June 2007. See here.

Print Media

"Slanguage, Above the 49th." The Chronicle of Higher Education (Washington, D.C., USA). Vol. LIII, Nr. 46 (20 July 2007).
"From eh to zed, je suis Canadien!". Kamloops Daily News (Kamloops, B.C.), 28 June 2007, A6.
"Eh to zed, je suis Canadien!". Alaska Highway News (Fort St. John, B.C.), 27 June 2007, A4.
"Eh to zed, je suis Canadien!". Calgary Herald (Calgary, Alta.), 26 June 2007, A14.
"Professor logging Canadianisms for dictionary". Daily Townsman and Bulletin (Cranbrook, B.C.), 26 June 2007, 18.
"We're Canadians, eh?". Leader Post (Regina, Sask.), 25 June 2007, B1.
"Professor to write a new chapter in the book of 'Canadianisms'. National Post [National Edition] (Don Mills, Ont.), 25 June 2007, A6.
"Prof logs 'Canadianisms'". The Star-Phoenix (Saskatoon, Sask.), 25 June 2007: A8.
"Prof tracks the double double and other 'Canadianisms'". The Gazette (Montreal, Que.). 25 June 2007, A9.
"Canucks coin new phrases; Professor updates 'Canadianisms' list. The Windsor Star (Windsor, Ont.), 25 June 2007, B1.
"Canadian lexicon gets a boost". Calgary Herald, (Calgary, Alta.), 24 June 2007, A1 [Front].
"Professor gives Canuck dictionary a facelift; UBC students track the history of 'Canadianisms'". Calgary Herald, (Calgary, Alta.), 24 June 2007, A5.
"Calling all Canadianisms". The Ottawa Citizen (Ottawa, Ont.), 24 June 2007: A2.
"Canadianisms get update in new dictionary" The Times-Colonist (Victoria, B.C.), 24 June 2007, A5.
Webb, Kate. "UBC professor tracks Canadianisms; plans to add terms like 'gem jar to dictionary". The Province (Vancouver, B.C.), 24 June 2007, A24.
Keong, Michelle. "Canadianisms, eh?" artsBeat (UBC, Vancouver), Summer 2007, p. 2. Online version (21 June 2007).
"Canuck, eh? Hoser, you're in the book". Winnipeg Free Press (Winnipeg, Man.), 10 March 2007: C17
"Canuck lingo update on tap". The Windsor Star (Windsor, Ont.), 10 March 2007 (final edition): C12.
"Canadianisms from eh to Z". Nanaimo Daily News (Nanaimo, B.C.), 10 March 2007: C1, front
"New dictionary aims to put 'Canuck' back into Canadian", Daily News (Halifax, N.S.), 10 March 2007, p. 13
"Canadian dictionary getting full overhaul", Ottawa Citizen (Ottawa, Ont.) , 12 March 2007, news brief on A2 and full subscriber version online
Krangle, Karenn. "Canadian English, eh", The Vancouver Sun (Vancouver, B.C.), 10 March 2007 (weekend, final edition), B1-3, front. An online version can be seen here (30 May 2007).


"Revising the Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles in the information age: some insights from letter 'G'", Biennial Meeting of the Dictionary Society of North America, University of Chicago, 15 June 2007.

"Canuckiana, eh? A linguistic browse through Canadian English", Emily Carr Institute, Vancouver, BC, guest lecture, 6 June 2007.

"Washrooms , toques , video lottery terminals and timbits: Why we need a new Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles", Department of English, University of British Columbia, guest lecture for History of English students, 1 Feb. 2007.



"Canucks, toques, and grow-ops": Towards a new Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles", Brock House Society , Vancouver, British Columbia, 26 October 2006.

"Canuck , toque , hoser and skid road : Towards a new Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles", Department of English Colloquium, University of British Columbia, 27 Sept. 2006.

"Canucks, toques, runners and the need for a new Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles". 14 th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics, University of Bergamo, Italy. 25 Aug. 2006.

August 2006
Announcement of the start of the project in the newsletter of the Dictionary Society of North America (30.1 Spring 2006)

6 April 2006
Message distributed to the subscribers of the mailing list of the International Society for Historical Lexicography and Lexicology






Sample bibliography |Top|

Select works pertaining to Canadian English lexicography and lexicology and works cited on this website:

Adler, Jacob. 1975. “The etymology of Canuck”. American Speech. 50/1-2. 158-160.

Avis, Walter S. 1978. "Canadian English in its North American context" - in: Vincent, Thomas, George Parker and Stephen Bonnycastle (eds.) Walter S. Avis: essays and articles. Selected from a quarter century of scholarship at the Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston. Kingston: Royal Military College of Canada, 35-49.

Avis, Walter S. 1978 [1975]. "Some French-Canadian loan-words in Canadian English" - in: Vincent, Thomas, George Parker and Stephen Bonnycastle (eds.) Walter S. Avis: essays and articles. Selected from a quarter century of scholarship at the Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston. Kingston: Royal Military College of Canada, 157-171.

Avis, Walter S. 1973. "Eskimo words in Canadian English". Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik. Beihefte Ed. Scholler, Harald and John Reidy. Lexicography and dialect geography. Festgabe for Hans Kurath. Neue Folge, H.9: 25-36 - reprinted in Vincent et al. (eds.) 1978, 142-156.

Avis, Walter S. 1954. "Speech differences along the Ontario-United States border. I: Vocabulary". Journal of the Canadian Linguistic Association (now Canadian Journal of Linguistics). 1/1 (Oct.): 13-18.

Avis, Walter S. and A. M. Kinloch (eds.) ([1977]). Writings on Canadian English, 1792-1975. An annotated bibliography. Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside.

Avis, Walter S., Charles Crate, Patrick Drysdale, Douglas Leechman, Matthew H. Scharill and Charles L. Lovell (eds). 1967. A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles. Toronto: Gage.

Boberg, Charles. 2005. " The North American Regional Vocabulary Survey: new variables and methods in the study of North American English" American Speech. 80/1: 22-60.

Brinton, Laurel J. and Margery Fee. 2001. "Canadian English." - in: Algeo, John (ed.) The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. VI. English in North America. Cambridge: CUP, 422-440.

Chambers, J. K. 2000. "Region and language variation". English World-Wide. 21/2: 169-199.

Chambers, J. K. 1998. "English: Canadian varieties" - in: Edwards, John (ed.) Language in Canada. Cambridge: CUP, 252-272.

Chambers, J. K. 1998. "Social embedding of changes in progress". Journal of English Linguistics. 26/1: 5-36.

Chambers, J. K. 1995. "The Canada-U.S. border as a vanishing isogloss: the evidence of chesterfield". Journal of English Linguistics. 23: 155-166.

Chambers, J. K. 1994. "An introduction to dialect topography". English World-Wide. 15: 35-53.

Chambers, J. K. 1993. ""Lawless and vulgar innovations": Victorian views on Canadian English" - in: Sandra Clarke (ed.) Focus on Canada. Amsterdam: Benjamins (= Varieties of English Around the World, G11), 1-26.

Clyne, Michael (ed.). 1992. Pluricentric languages. Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Davey, William and Richard MacKinnon. 1995. "A report on the Dictionary of Cape Breton English" - in: Lillian, Donna L. (ed.) Papers from the Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistic Association, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, November 10-11, 1995, 21-34.

Dollinger, Stefan. 2011. DCHP-1 Online: A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles Online. Based on Walter S. Avis et al. (1967). With the assistance of Laurel J. Brinton and Margery Fee. (Online dictionary) http://dchp.ca/DCHP-1/ . Open Access is pending.

Dollinger, Stefan. 2011. "The 'Groundhog Day Loop' in Canadian English". Strathy Unit Language Blog, period of April/May 2011. 1200 words, 14 April 2011, http://www.queensu.ca/strathy/Blog.html.

Dollinger, Stefan. 2010. "A new historical dictionary of Canadian English as a linguistic database tool. Or, making a virtue out of necessity" In: Considine, John (ed.) Current Projects in Historical Lexicography. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 99-112.

Dollinger, Stefan. 2010. "Software from the Bank of Canadian English as an open source tool for the dialectologist: ling.surf and its features". In: Manfred Markus, Clive Upton and Reinhard Heuberger (eds.) Joseph Wright's English Dialect Dictionary and Beyond: Studies in Late Modern English Dialectology. Berne: Lang, 249-261.

Dollinger, Stefan. 2006. "Towards a fully revised and extended edition of the Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles (DCHP-2): background, challenges, prospects". Historical Sociolinguistics/Sociohistorical Linguisics (Leiden, NL). 6. http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/hsl_shl/DCHP-2/DCHP-2/DCHP-2.htm

Dollinger, Stefan. 2006. "Oh Canada! Towards the Corpus of Early Ontario English" - in: Renouf, Antoinette and Andrew Kehoe (eds.). The changing face of corpus linguistics. Proceedings of the 24th ICAME Conference, Guernsey, UK, April 2003. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 7-25.

Dollinger, Stefan and Luanne von Schneidemesser. 2011. "Canadianism, Americanism, North Americanism? A Comparison of DARE and DCHP". American Speech 86(2): 115-151.

Dollinger, Stefan and Laurel J. Brinton. 2008. "Canadian English lexis: historical and variationist perspectives". Anglistik: International Journal of English Studies 19(2) Special Issue "Focus on Canadian English", Ed. by Matthias Meyer, 43-64.

Dollinger, Stefan (ed.-in-chief), Laurel Brinton (assoc. ed.) and Margery Fee (assoc. ed.). In prep. DCHP-2: The Dictinary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles. Second Edition. Online dictionary. http://dchp.ca/DCHP-2/.

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Submitting potential Canadianisms


If you would like to submit a word, expression or meaning that might qualify as a Canadianism, i.e. originated in the country or is "distinctively characteristic" of Canada, please send us an email at:

dstefan #AT#dchp####.ca (remove all ###)

Please provide details as to when and where you read/heard the word. If possible, include an example of the word in context. Also, if you use the term you're reporting yourself, or used it in the past, please provide some background information in form of a 'mini biography': where (and when) you grew up (city, province, country), where you went to school, what second languages were spoken in your area.

We will read and review every submission, but cannot, unfortunately, respond individually to each submission. Thanks for your understanding and thank you very much for your input.



Where to purchase DCHP-1


Now that DCHP-1 Online is available free of charge to everyone, the demand for hard copy is low. However, the book lover still has the option to order a hard copy from the publisher.

The 1967 hardcover version can only be purchased through second-hand bookstores, but a 1991 paperback reprint, which is virtually identical with the hardcover version, is still in print. The paperback version must be ordered directly through the publisher (Cdn$ 44.45).

You can order the "Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles 0771519761"

with Nelson Customer Service:

Telephone: (416) 752-9448 or Toll-free in Canada 1-800-268-2222
Monday - Friday 8:00am - 6:00pm EST
Saturday 9:00am - 3:00pm EST


How to contact us


DCHP-2 Project
c/o Stefan Dollinger
Department of English
University of British Columbia
1873 East Mall, Buchanan Tower 397
Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1

Ph (604) 822-4095 (Please submit words in writing only)
Fax (604) 822-6906
dstefan #AT#dc##hp.ca (remove all ##)

Office location:
Canadian English Laboratory
Buchanan Tower 328