Week 1 (Sep 10). Historical Overview
The Significance of the Japanese Experience
- Fascinating Japanese Politics
- Presentation of the Course
- Assignments and Logistics
- Self-Introduction (自己紹介 )
- How many main islands does Japan have?
- What is Japan’s size? Bigger or Smaller than France or California?
- How many times bigger is Canada?
- What is the population of Japan (vs Canada)?
- When did Japan become a democracy?
- Who is Japan’s Prime Minister?
- Until When ?
- What is happening here?
- And who is this happy guy?
- A new time
- The 3 party leaders in coalition
- Former PM Fukuda
- And Fukuda Again...
- The most durable man in Japanese politics
- How about him?
- A disgraceful exit
- Can you spot 2 PM here?
- Permanence of Japanese politics (1981-2006)?
Overview of Recent Political Events
- 2001-2006: PM Koizumi Junichiro
- 2006-2007: PM Abe
- July 2007: Disastrous Upper House Election for LDP
- Sept 2007: Abe resigns, Fukuda takes over
- Fall 07- Fall 09: Parliamentary deadlock: "Twisted Diet" （ねじれ国会）
- Aug 31 2009: HIstoric Election!!!
- Aug 09: A year is an infinite time in politics!
- The Great Reversal
- One battle in a great historical conflict (with a twist)?
- Ichiro Hatoyama with 2 grandsons, Yukio and Kunio
- Aso grand grand grandpa Okubo Toshimichi
- Aso Grandpa: PM Yoshida
- The new DPJ leadership
- PM Hatoyama Yukio (in older days)
Hatoyama Quotes, New York Times OpEd, (Aug 27)
“How can we put an end to unrestrained market fundamentalism and financial capitalism, that are void of morals or moderation, in order to protect the finances and livelihoods of our citizens? That is the issue we are now facing.”
"If we look back on the changes in Japanese society since the end of the Cold War, I believe it is no exaggeration to say that the global economy has damaged traditional economic activities and destroyed local communities."
"Therefore, I would suggest, somewhat paradoxically, that the issues that stand in the way of regional integration can only be truly resolved by moving toward greater integration. The experience of the E.U. shows us how regional integration can defuse territorial disputes."
A First View on Japanese Politics
- The Traditional Locus of Power
A Second View on Japanese Politics
- Changes Bubbling Below the Surface
[Belows are pictorial information.]
Two New Realities: Part-Time Job Hunting Fairs, Demonstrations by Homeless
Japanese NGO members in Sri Lanka (demining)
Japanese Doctor in Iran (Bam earthquake, Jan 2004)
Livelier Civil Society Scene (Gender, Envt, GMOs..)
- Class Goals
- Part I: Foundations-History and Theory
- Historical Overview
- Legacy of the War, Yasukuni Debate
- The Occupation Period
- How the 1947 Constitution came about
Class Intro (2)
- PART II:Classical Debates of JP politics:
- The Political System
- Party Politics: LDP Dominance
- What Explains the JP Economic Miracle?
- Who has Power in the Japanese System?
Class Intro (3)
- Part III: Current Issues and Debates:
- Political Transformation & Electoral Reforms
- The New Japan: NGOs, Gender
- Why is the US-JP Alliance so Resilient?
- The Politics of the Bubble and Crisis
- Koizumi Reforms-what next?
- Lessons from the Japanese System
- Stockwin book
- Additional readings (website)
- E-mails and suggestion
- About me
- Individual pressentations
Debates on Japanese Politics-part1:
The Legacy of History
Challenge of Power within hours
The Big influencial man
Two Key Questions of the Week:
- When we study modern Japanese politics (post-1950), what is the most important legacy from the past (1800-1950) that we must keep in mind?
- Did the US Occupation period radically transform the Japanese Political System, or do you see this period more as a partial correction in a long trajectory begun in 1868?
Basic Japanese History: 1850-1945
Key Milestones to Remember
- Tokugawa Japan: 1600-1868
- Commodore Perry: 1854
- Meiji Restoration / Revolution: 1868
- Meiji Constitution: 1889
- Imperialism: 1895-1945
- Taisho Democracy:1920s
EDO Period (1600-1868)
Unification of Japan by 3 military leaders:
- Nobunaga Oda: 1568-1582
- Hideyoshi Toyotomi: 1583-1598
- Tokugawa Ieyasu: 1600 (battle Sekigahara)
Highlights of Edo Period
- Establishment of Shogunate (in Edo-Tokyo)
- Peace and Stability for 250 years (Sankin Kotai)
- Feudal System (Nobles, Samurais, Peasants, Merchants)
- National Seclusion (1639)
- Ban on Christianity, Persecution
- Proto-industrial development
- But occurrence of peasant protests / famines
View of Edo
Samurais during Edo
Japan during Edo
Ending Years of Edo Period
- 1823: Siebold comes to Nagasaki, arrested in 1829 (with shipment of maps)
- 1833: Tempo Famine (300,000 dead)
- 1837: Morrison Incident, US ship fired at
- 1841: Tempo Reforms (conservative)
- 1842: Treaty of Nanking (UK-China)
- 1853: Arrival of Commodore Perry
Treaty of Nanking-1842
UK - China
Perry’s Black Ships-1853
From Perry to Meiji: 1854-1868
- 1854: Kanagawa Treaty of Peace US-Japan (1854-1856: UK, Neth., Russia)
- 1856: US Consul Townsend Harris arrives
- 1858: Commercial Treaties with US, UK, FR, Neth, Russia (forced opening to the West, extra-territoriality)
- 1863: UK bombardment of Kagoshima
- 1860s: Volatile Political Situation
Townsend Harris in Shimoda
- 1866: Satsuma-Choshu Alliance Against Tokugawa Shogunate
- 1868: Restoration of Imperial Rule
- 1871: Domains dissolved
- 1871: Iwakura Mission in US and Europe
- 1872: National Army created
- 1873: First Railroad Tokyo-Yokohama
Satsuma and Choshu
Iwakura Mission: 1871-1872
Meiji Revolution-the Bottom Line
- Political Transformation: effective centralized authoritarian government
- Social Transformation: abolition of classes
- Education revolution: unified education
- Economic Transformation: the fastest industrialization on record
- Military Transformation: a top army in 30 years
Japan’s Imperial Army
Constitution of 1889
- Important Milestone: Creation of a Parliament (Diet), elected by 1% of population
- Constitutional Government
- Drafted by Ito Hirobumi
- The Emperor and the People “rule together”
- Power in hands of Emperor, but in reality Meiji Oligarchs rule
- No Civilian Control of the Army
Ito Hirobumi and New Diet
The New Constitution
Consolidation and Expansion of Japan
- 1855: Japan-Russia Treaty of Shimoda - 4 Kuril islands under JP control, joint control over Sakhalin
- 1875: New Treaty with Russia- all Kurils for Japan, all Sakhalin for Russia
- 1874: Japanese Military Expedition to Ryukyu islands (Okinawa)- Ryukyu ruler had historically been both vassal to Satsuma and tributary to Qing China
- 1879: Ryukyu Islands incorporated into Japan as the new prefecture of Okinawa, ex-ruler is pensioned off (like the daimyos of Tokugawa Japan)
Ainu Aboriginals in Hokkaido- Persecution and Assimilation
Japanese Imperialism & For.Pol.
- 1876: JP gunboat to Korea (imitation of Commodore Perry)- Treaty of Kangwha opens 3 ports to Japan and grants extra-territoriality
- 1894: Anglo-Japanese Commercial treaty (end of unequal treaties)
- 1894-1895: Sino-Japanese War, Treaty of Shimonoseki. But Japan immediately forced by European powers to relinquish territory in Korea and China (Liaodong). Japan keeps Taiwan (Formosa).
- 1898: Supreme insult: Russia takes Liaodong peninsula in China (the very area that Japan had won in the war with China)
- 1902: Anglo-Japanese Alliance
- 1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War, Japanese Stunning Victory, Treaty of Portsmouth: Korea, Port-Arthur, Liaodong Peninsula, Manchurian Railway, half of Sakhalin under Japan’s control
- 1910: Annexation of Korea
- 1915: 21 Demands to China (during WWI, JP allied with UK and FR)
Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: A major reversal in Asia
Bombardment of Port-Arthur, 1904
Russian Debacle in Manchuria
The Great Battle of Tsushima-May 1905
Admiral Togo-the Hero of Tsushima
Something Peculiar about the Japanese Navy at Tsushima
Japan Asserts Itself
Treaty of Portsmouth